Protectionism and procrastination:
the era of inertia in corporate affairs
In the last chapter, the issue of regulatory crime was analysed through the lens
of doctrinal legal definition. It was shown that the Irish legal system adopted
a narrow legal definition of crime, orientated to prioritise conventional crime
and one that marginalised corporate wrongdoing from this analysis. This chapter shows that the failure to develop a jurisprudence incorporating corporate
wrongdoing into the architecture of the criminal law was premised on a political
An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister
played an important role
in the BRICS, promoted multilateralism and human rights and challenged protectionism.
Unfortunately, today, Brazil isn’t exporting a single idea. But when we have a legitimate
government once again, Brazil will work on these things and on South–South
JF: The human rights and humanitarian movements have often been seen as vectors of
Western influence – expressions of soft power – not only because of their practices
but also because of the cultural origins of their ideals…
CA: … Which is not necessarily a
The populist wave which has submerged Europe and the United States in recent years seems unstoppable. But is it? The End of Populism offers answers and proposes concrete solutions to confront the rise of “illiberal democracy.” Drawing on years of research, the author develops a complete new ideal type of populism, which enables him to identify the basic problems. Deploying a wealth of social science evidence, he refutes the populist claim that democracy is a “demand side” phenomenon, and demonstrates that it is rather a “supply side” phenomenon. He argues that one can have "too much democracy” and shows how methods of direct democracy, such as popular initiatives, referendums, and open primaries, which pretend “to give the power back to the people,” have led to manipulation by populists and moneyed interests. Populist attacks on the judiciary, central banks, the media, and other independent agencies, instead of strengthening democracy, have rather undermined liberal democracy. The author formulates twenty original and bold proposals to fight populism and defend liberal democracy. These proposals include ways to bridge the gap between the people and the elites, fight corruption, improve political party funding, and initiate societal, educational, and macro-economic reforms to increase economic equality and alleviate the insecurity of the citizens.
The election in 1932 of the Fianna Fáil government led by Eamon de Valera
resulted in a significant change in economic policy direction. The new government pursued a policy of protectionism and import substitution, which was
aimed at trying to ensure a better balance between agriculture production and
5306ST New Patterns-C/lb.qxd
Europeanisation and new patterns of governance in Ireland
industrial development. The policy generated new industrial development, with
almost a 50 per cent increase in industrial production between 1931 and
friend, the Irish Attorney General William Saurin, forwarded his complaints about the misapplication of public money to the Chief Secretary,
Robert Peel, who replied that as ‘the economy is so much the order of the
day’, Richardson’s views ‘deserve attention’.5 Moreover, as he wrote as an
10/5/2012 11:35:50 AM
Richardson and Malthus
agricultural protectionist, Richardson affiliated himself to an important
strand of contemporary economic thought.
Protectionism has been sidelined historiographically by a focus on
free trade and
accession of former socialist countries.
By then, Turkey had been experimenting with free market mechanisms for over
a decade, having launched a transition from import substitution protectionism
to export-oriented industrialisation in the early 1980s. The country had also
launched its application for full membership of the EEC, in 1987, in response to
which the Commission in its opinion to the Council two and a half years later
offered instead to enhance preparations for a customs union.
At the onset of customs union efforts, Turkey’s deepening economic integration with
This is the first definitive examination of the practice of corporate regulation and enforcement from the foundation of the Irish State to the present day. It analyses the transition in Ireland from a sanctioning, ‘command and control’ model of corporate enforcement to the compliance-orientated, responsive regulatory model. It is also unique in locating this shift in its broader sociological and jurisprudential context. It provides a definitive account of a State at a critical stage of its economic development, having moved from an agrarian and protected society to a free-market globalised economy which is trying to cope with the negative aspects of increased corporate activity, having experienced an economic boom and depression in a remarkably condensed period of time. Traditionally, corporate wrongdoing was often criminalised using conventional criminal justice methods and the ordinary police were often charged with the responsibility of enforcing the law. Since the 1990s, however, the conventional crime monopoly on corporate deviancy has become fragmented because a variety of specialist, interdisciplinary agencies with enhanced powers now address corporate wrongdoing. The exclusive dominance of conventional crime methods has also faded because corporate wrongdoing is now specifically addressed by a responsive enforcement architecture, taking compliance orientated and sanctioning approaches, using both civil and criminal enforcement mechanisms, where criminal law is now the sanction of last resort.
This chapter outlines the history of musicians’ representative organisations before the formation of the Amalgamated Musicians’ Union in 1893. It traces developments from the fourteenth century to the late nineteenth, examining the various fraternities, brotherhood guilds and societies which were formed. Issues of protectionism, benevolence and organisation are raised. The moves towards a re trade unionism are outlined in the context of the growth of new unionism. The formation of the Amalgamated Musicians’ Union (AMU) and thee rival London Orchestral Association (LOA) are outlined.
Asian Bureaucratic Developmental
State (BDS) model and what emerged in the Irish developmental state
approach. The BDS model adopted from Japan combined elements of
protectionism and state enterprise that differed considerably from what
pertained in the West. East Asian developmental states articulated projects of economic nationalism by means of state control over finance
and the labour market. These blurred distinctions between public and
private ownership and, more generally, ones between the state and the
market.9 Characteristically the state intervened directly
Karl Polanyi (1886–1964) returned to public discourse in the 1990s, when the Soviet Union imploded and globalization erupted. Best known for The Great Transformation, Polanyi’s wide-ranging thought anticipated twenty-first-century civilizational challenges of ecological collapse, social disintegration and international conflict, and warned that the unbridled domination of market capitalism would engender nationalist protective counter-movements. In Karl Polanyi and Twenty-First-Century Capitalism, Radhika Desai and Kari Polanyi Levitt bring together prominent and new thinkers in the field to extend the boundaries of our understanding of Polanyi's life and work. Kari Polanyi Levitt's opening essay situates Polanyi in the past century shaped by Keynes and Hayek, and explores how and why his ideas may shape the twenty-first century. Her analysis of his Bennington Lectures, which pre-dated and anticipated The Great Transformation, demonstrates how Central European his thought and chief concerns were. The next several contributions clarify, for the first time in Polanyi scholarship, the meaning of money as a fictitious commodity. Other contributions resolve difficulties in understanding the building blocks of Polanyi's thought: fictitious commodities, the double movement, the United States' exceptional development, the reality of society and socialism as freedom in a complex society. The volume culminates in explorations of how Polanyi has influenced, and can be used to develop, ideas in a number of fields, whether income inequality, world-systems theory or comparative political economy. Contributors: Fred Block, Michael Brie, Radhika Desai, Michael Hudson, Hannes Lacher, Kari Polanyi Levitt, Chikako Nakayama, Jamie Peck, Abraham Rotstein, Margaret Somers, Claus Thomasberger, Oscar Ugarteche Galarza.