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The era of inertia in corporate affairs
Joe McGrath

2 Protectionism and procrastination: the era of inertia in corporate affairs Introduction In the last chapter, the issue of regulatory crime was analysed through the lens of doctrinal legal definition. It was shown that the Irish legal system adopted a narrow legal definition of crime, orientated to prioritise conventional crime and one that marginalised corporate wrongdoing from this analysis. This chapter shows that the failure to develop a jurisprudence incorporating corporate wrongdoing into the architecture of the criminal law was premised on a political

in Corporate and white-collar crime in Ireland
An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister
Juliano Fiori

played an important role in the BRICS, promoted multilateralism and human rights and challenged protectionism. Unfortunately, today, Brazil isn’t exporting a single idea. But when we have a legitimate government once again, Brazil will work on these things and on South–South cooperation. JF: The human rights and humanitarian movements have often been seen as vectors of Western influence – expressions of soft power – not only because of their practices but also because of the cultural origins of their ideals… CA: … Which is not necessarily a

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Twenty proposals to defend liberal democracy

The populist wave which has submerged Europe and the United States in recent years seems unstoppable. But is it? The End of Populism offers answers and proposes concrete solutions to confront the rise of “illiberal democracy.” Drawing on years of research, the author develops a complete new ideal type of populism, which enables him to identify the basic problems. Deploying a wealth of social science evidence, he refutes the populist claim that democracy is a “demand side” phenomenon, and demonstrates that it is rather a “supply side” phenomenon. He argues that one can have "too much democracy” and shows how methods of direct democracy, such as popular initiatives, referendums, and open primaries, which pretend “to give the power back to the people,” have led to manipulation by populists and moneyed interests. Populist attacks on the judiciary, central banks, the media, and other independent agencies, instead of strengthening democracy, have rather undermined liberal democracy. The author formulates twenty original and bold proposals to fight populism and defend liberal democracy. These proposals include ways to bridge the gap between the people and the elites, fight corruption, improve political party funding, and initiate societal, educational, and macro-economic reforms to increase economic equality and alleviate the insecurity of the citizens.

Allan Blackstock

Richardson’s college friend, the Irish Attorney General William Saurin, forwarded his complaints about the misapplication of public money to the Chief Secretary, Robert Peel, who replied that as ‘the economy is so much the order of the day’, Richardson’s views ‘deserve attention’.5 Moreover, as he wrote as an 114 Richardson.indb 114 10/5/2012 11:35:50 AM Richardson and Malthus agricultural protectionist, Richardson affiliated himself to an important strand of contemporary economic thought. Protectionism has been sidelined historiographically by a focus on free trade and

in Science, politics and society in early nineteenth-century Ireland
Nicholas Rees

). The election in 1932 of the Fianna Fáil government led by Eamon de Valera resulted in a significant change in economic policy direction. The new government pursued a policy of protectionism and import substitution, which was aimed at trying to ensure a better balance between agriculture production and 5306ST New Patterns-C/lb.qxd 82 3/9/09 16:45 Page 82 Europeanisation and new patterns of governance in Ireland industrial development. The policy generated new industrial development, with almost a 50 per cent increase in industrial production between 1931 and

in Europeanisation and new patterns of governance in Ireland
Bilge Firat

accession of former socialist countries. By then, Turkey had been experimenting with free market mechanisms for over a decade, having launched a transition from import substitution protectionism to export-oriented industrialisation in the early 1980s. The country had also launched its application for full membership of the EEC, in 1987, in response to which the Commission in its opinion to the Council two and a half years later offered instead to enhance preparations for a customs union. At the onset of customs union efforts, Turkey’s deepening economic integration with

in Diplomacy and lobbying during Turkey’s Europeanisation
Pierre-Yves Donzé

Moreover, in other sectors of the manufacturing industry, the absence of legal constraints such as the Watchmaking Statute led some companies to transfer their production to their main markets to overcome the constraints of customs protectionism that developed strongly during the interwar period. Although this period is rightly considered as a phase of ‘de-globalisation’, due to the sharp decline in international trade and the limitations on migratory movements, it corresponds to a phase of strengthening the global organisation of manufacturing companies

in The business of time
Pierre-Yves Donzé

patent law (1882). This political activity was relayed via several watch manufacturers who were deputies in the Federal Assembly, generally in the ranks of the Radical Party. In the 1880s and 1890s, when federal customs policy evolved towards greater protectionism, the SIIJ became an ardent defender of the ‘free trade dogma’. 31 Finally, the lobbyist policy organised by the SIIJ enabled the watch industry to be integrated into the country's other industrial and export sectors, united within the Swiss Federation of

in The business of time
Pierre-Yves Donzé

, distribution, sales) carried out by a number of legally independent and geographically distant companies. This model has been adopted by other companies, notably the American group Movado, as well as Folli Follie and Morellato & Sector, based in Greece and Italy, respectively. The diverse fortunes of protectionist models A watch industry emerged, and prospered, in new nations during the 1960s and 1970s, thanks to state protectionism. This was mainly the case in China, India, and Russia. The advent of quartz also initially strengthened

in The business of time
A new architecture of regulatory enforcement
Series: Irish Society
Author: Joe McGrath

This is the first definitive examination of the practice of corporate regulation and enforcement from the foundation of the Irish State to the present day. It analyses the transition in Ireland from a sanctioning, ‘command and control’ model of corporate enforcement to the compliance-orientated, responsive regulatory model. It is also unique in locating this shift in its broader sociological and jurisprudential context. It provides a definitive account of a State at a critical stage of its economic development, having moved from an agrarian and protected society to a free-market globalised economy which is trying to cope with the negative aspects of increased corporate activity, having experienced an economic boom and depression in a remarkably condensed period of time.

Traditionally, corporate wrongdoing was often criminalised using conventional criminal justice methods and the ordinary police were often charged with the responsibility of enforcing the law. Since the 1990s, however, the conventional crime monopoly on corporate deviancy has become fragmented because a variety of specialist, interdisciplinary agencies with enhanced powers now address corporate wrongdoing. The exclusive dominance of conventional crime methods has also faded because corporate wrongdoing is now specifically addressed by a responsive enforcement architecture, taking compliance orientated and sanctioning approaches, using both civil and criminal enforcement mechanisms, where criminal law is now the sanction of last resort.