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J. G. Merrills
and
A. H. Robertson

The First Protocol Protection of property Article 1 of Protocol No. 1 relates to property rights and provides: Every natural or legal person is entitled to the peaceful enjoyment of his possessions. No one shall be deprived of his possessions except in the public interest and subject to the conditions provided

in Human rights in Europe
J. G. Merrills
and
A. H. Robertson

Implementation of the rights discussed in the preceding chapters was originally monitored by two organs created by the Convention, the European Commission of Human Rights and the European Court of Human Rights, and a body which already existed, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe. With the entry into force of Protocol No. 11 in November 1998 this situation

in Human rights in Europe
Difficulties and challenges for the forensic medical system in Mexico
Isabel Beltrán-Gil
,
María Alexandra Lopez-Cerquera
,
Linda Guadalupe Reyes Muñoz
,
Sandra Ivette Sedano Rios
,
Nuvia Montserrat Maestro Martínez
, and
Diana Newberry Franco

As a result of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic, in 2020 forensic institutions in Mexico began using extreme measures in the treatment of bodies of confirmed or suspected cases, due to possible infection. A series of national protocols on how to deal with the virus were announced, yet forensic personnel have struggled to apply these, demonstrating the country’s forensics crisis. This article aims to reflect on two points: (1) the impact that COVID-19 protocols have had on how bodies confirmed as or suspected of being infected with the virus are handled in the forensic medical system; and (2) the particular treatment in cases where the body of the victim is unidentified, and the different effects the pandemic has had in terms of the relationship between the institutional environment and the family members of those who have died as a result of infection, or suspected infection, from COVID-19.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Positioning, Politics and Pertinence
Natalie Roberts

other organisations, including the WHO, on its Ebola protocols. During the height of the epidemic, between March 2014 and March 2015, MSF spent €77 million on the Ebola response and employed 5,300 response workers in West Africa, among whom 28 were infected with the virus and 14 died ( MSF, 2016b ). Yet once the epidemic was over, after more than 28,600 cases and 11,300 deaths, there was little critical reflection on the quantifiable or qualifiable outcomes

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
What Lessons Can Be Drawn from Case Studies in France, the United States and Madagascar?
Hugo Carnell

lessons can be identified. 1. To respond to a plague epidemic, public health authorities must have centralised, independently effective and minimally bureaucratic response protocols. Marseille had a well-established and generally very effective quarantine service, but the fact that it was operated by merchants with vested commercial interests working in their spare time meant that there was clear scope for the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Ceremony of Organ Harvest in Gothic Science Fiction
Sara Wasson

In organ transfer, tissue moves through a web of language. Metaphors reclassify the tissue to enable its redeployment, framing the process for practitioners and public. The process of marking off tissue as transferrable in legal and cultural terms parallels many of the processes that typically accompany commodification in late capitalism. This language of economic transformation echoes the language of Gothic ceremony, of purification and demarcation. As in literary Gothic s representations of ceremony, this economic work is anxious and the boundaries it creates unstable. This article identifies dominant metaphors shaping that ceremony of tissue reclassification, and examines how three twenty-first century novels deploy these metaphors to represent the harvest (procurement) process (the metaphor of harvest; is itself highly problematic, as I will discuss). Kazuo Ishiguros Never Let Me Go (2005), Neal Shusterman Unwind (2007), and Ninni Holmqvists Swedish novel Enhet (The Unit) (2006, translated into English in 2010) each depict vulnerable protagonists within societies where extreme tissue procurement protocols have state sanction. The texts invite us to reflect on the kinds of symbolic substitutions that help legitimate tissue transfer and the way that procurement protocols may become influenced by social imperatives. In each text, the Gothic trope of dismemberment becomes charged with new urgency.

Gothic Studies
Open Access (free)
James Baldwin’s Pragmatist Aesthetics
Rohan Ghatage

This essay establishes a philosophical connection between James Baldwin and the philosopher William James by investigating how the pragmatist protocol against “vicious intellectualism” offers Baldwin a key resource for thinking through how anti-black racism might be dismantled. While Richard Wright had earlier denounced pragmatism for privileging experience over knowledge, and thereby offering the black subject no means for redressing America’s constitutive hierarchies, uncovering the current of Jamesian thought that runs through Baldwin’s essays brings into view his attempt to move beyond epistemology as the primary framework for inaugurating a future unburdened by the problem of the color line. Although Baldwin indicts contemporaneous arrangements of knowledge for producing the most dehumanizing forms of racism, he does not simply attempt to rewrite the enervating meanings to which black subjects are given. Articulating a pragmatist sensibility at various stages of his career, Baldwin repeatedly suggests that the imagining and creation of a better world is predicated upon rethinking the normative value accorded to knowledge in the practice of politics. The provocative challenge that Baldwin issues for his reader is to cease the well-established privileging of knowledge, and to instead stage the struggle for freedom within an aesthetic, rather than epistemological, paradigm.

James Baldwin Review
Claudia Merli
and
Trudi Buck

This article considers the contexts and processes of forensic identification in 2004 post-tsunami Thailand as examples of identity politics. The presence of international forensic teams as carriers of diverse technical expertise overlapped with bureaucratic procedures put in place by the Thai government. The negotiation of unified forensic protocols and the production of estimates of identified nationals straddle biopolitics and thanatocracy. The immense identification task testified on the one hand to an effort to bring individual bodies back to mourning families and national soils, and on the other hand to determining collective ethnic and national bodies, making sense out of an inexorable and disordered dissolution of corporeal as well as political boundaries. Individual and national identities were the subject of competing efforts to bring order to,the chaos, reaffirming the cogency of the body politic by mapping national boundaries abroad. The overwhelming forensic effort required by the exceptional circumstances also brought forward the socio-economic and ethnic disparities of the victims, whose post-mortem treatment and identification traced an indelible divide between us and them.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Building High-tech Castles in the Air?
Anisa Jabeen Nasir Jafar

and disasters are a good example of this. Even on a smaller scale, one has only to look to mass-casualty incidents in well-resourced settings. Much as plans and protocols may be in place, the need and requirement of the circumstance pushes the limits of capacity, and therefore it is necessary for healthcare (in needing to deliver the most for the most) to focus much more heavily and widely on the rudimentary stages of casualty management and triage. Certainly, the return to ‘normal’ in well

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Difficulties of a Randomised Clinical Trial Confronted with Real Life in Southern Niger
Mamane Sani Souley Issoufou

the diagnostic procedures. It details the itinerary of the care received from admission to resolution (which might be cure, death or discontinuation of care). If constituting a medical record in the context of a clinical trial is a lengthy, complex and rigorous process, it is because all the actions chronicling the participant’s health and disease history must be clearly documented in accordance with specific protocols and ethical commitments. That rigour

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs