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Comparative and transnational perspectives, c. 1700–1990s

This book addresses head-on one of the central debates in the history of alcohol and intoxication, the supposed ‘medicalisation’ of alcohol from the nineteenth century onwards. The chapters show that the very concept of medicalisation as used in the history of medicine and psychiatry needs to be more closely interrogated, with each case study in the volume demonstrating the complexities of medicalisation in practice: limited funding, state control of healthcare, ideological constraints and tensions between legislation and traditional cultural practices. The engagingly written chapters call attention to the many obstacles and challenges that historians face when they explore the relationship between medicine and alcohol. The volume also explores the shift from the use of alcohol in clinical treatment, as part of dietary regimens, incentive to work and reward for desirable behaviour during earlier periods to the emergence of ‘alcoholism’ as a disease category that requires medical intervention, is covered by medical insurance and is considered as a threat to public health. The book’s broad international scope goes well beyond the focus on Western Europe and the USA in existing historical writing. Despite the wide-ranging geographical focus, key themes are consistently brought out: definition and diagnosis, links between alcohol and crime, the rhetoric of social and economic degeneration, the impact of colonialism and the role of families in alcohol treatment.

Valentin-Veron Toma

9 Work and occupation in Romanian psychiatry, c. 1838–1945 Valentin-Veron Toma Along with other types of occupation, such as reading, writing and sporting activities, work has been used as a form of therapy in Romanian psychiatry from the mid-nineteenth century. For example, the first workshops for mental patients were created at the Mărcuța asylum in Bucharest in 1855, just seventeen years after the institutionalisation of psychiatry in the Romanian principalities. Work and other occupations were considered appropriate mainly in the treatment of long

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
From colonial to cross-cultural psychiatry in Nigeria
Matthew M. Heaton

War. The question of where mental health fits into this history has yet to be addressed; however, the examination of psychiatry provides a variety of opportunities to complicate the historical narrative of global health in Africa that has been proffered so far. As with other medical sciences, the history of psychiatry in Africa is intimately connected to the processes of European colonialism. A small but coherent historiography has done a great deal to demonstrate the ways that European ideas about mental illness and how to treat it were deeply

in Global health and the new world order
Ricardo Campos

psychiatrists to pay little attention to it. 5 However, from the many sources that I have studied I have inferred that there are deeper issues relating to the clinical approach to alcoholism and psychiatrists’ professional priorities, ingrained in the social weakness of the discipline of psychiatry at that time. 6 I will work from the hypothesis that psychiatry during this period was still constructing itself as a profession and was focusing on other priorities that would legitimise it publicly as a field in itself

in Alcohol, psychiatry and society

This edited book offers a systematic critical appraisal of the uses of work and work therapy in psychiatric institutions across the globe, from the late eighteenth to the end of the twentieth century. Contributors explore the daily routine in psychiatric institutions within the context of the wider socio-political and economic conditions. They examine whether work was therapy, part of a regime of punishment, or a means of exploiting free labour. By focusing on mental patients’ day-to-day life in closed institutions, the authors fill a gap in the history of psychiatric regimes. The geographic scope is wide, ranging from Northern America to Japan, India and Western as well as Eastern Europe, and authors engage with broader historical questions, such as the impact of colonialism and communism, the effect of the World Wars, and issues of political governance and care in the community schemes.

Birgit Lang

2 Fin-de-siècle investigations of the ‘creative genius’ in psychiatry and psychoanalysis Birgit Lang In Victorian society, admiration for the ‘creative genius’ abounded. It was based on stereotypical notions of the Romantic artist, who, ‘by the neat and necessarily contradictory logic of aesthetic elevation and social exclusion, [was] both a great genius and greatly misunderstood’.1 In Germany the propensity to idealise the artist as a creative genius was further propelled by intellectuals’ and writers’ contribution to imagining the German nation throughout the

in A history of the case study
Open Access (free)
A Belated but Welcome Theory of Change on Mental Health and Development
Laura Davidson

the Lower-Middle-Income Countries of Africa and Asia during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Scoping Review ’, Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research , 38 , 54 – 64 , doi: 10.1016/j.npbr.2020.10.003 . Lehmann , P. ( 2019 ), ‘ Paradigm shift: Treatment alternatives to psychiatric drugs, with particular reference to low- and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Resilience and the Language of Compassion
Diego I. Meza

Signature of Forced Migration ’, Current Psychiatry Reports , 16 : Art. 475 , doi: 10.1007/s11920-014-0475-7 . Sliwa M. and Wiig , H. ( 2016 ), ‘ “ Should I Stay or Should I Go? ”: The role of colombian free urban housing projects in idp return to the countryside ’, Habitat International , 56 , 11 – 19 , doi: 10.1016/j.habitatint.2016.01.003 . Smillie , I. and Minear , L. ( 2004 ), The Charity of Nations: Humanitarian Action in a Calculating World ( Bloomfield, CT : Kumarian Press ). Sözer , H. ( 2019

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War
Xavier Crombé
Joanna Kuper

Ibid . Bibliography Benton , A. and Atshan , S . ( 2016 ), ‘ “Even War has Rules”: On Medical Neutrality and Legitimate Non-violence ’, Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry , 40 : 2 , 151 – 8 , doi: 10.1007/s11013-016-9491-x

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Neurasthenia in the life and work of Leonid Andreev

By the first decade of the twentieth century, Russia was experiencing a decadent period of cultural degeneration. Simultaneous with this artistic response, science was developing ways to identify medical conditions that supposedly reflected the health of the entire nation. Leonid Andreev (1871–1919), the leading literary figure of his time, stepped into the breech of this scientific discourse with literary works about degenerates. The spirited social debates on mental illness, morality and sexual deviance which resulted from these works became part of the ongoing battle over the definition and depiction of the irrational, complicated by Andreev’s own publicized bouts with neurasthenia. Specific to the study is the way in which Andreev readily accepted and incorporated scientific conjecture into his cultural production and how these works were in turn cited by medical authorities as confirmation of their theories, creating a circular argument. This book demonstrates the implications of scientific discourse on Russian concepts of mental illness and national health. It examines the concept of pathology in Russia, the influence of European medical discourse, the development of Russian psychiatry, and the role that it had on popular culture by investigating the life and works of Andreev. Although widely discussed in its European context, degeneration theory has not been afforded the same scholarly attention in Russian cultural studies. As a result, this study extends and challenges scholarship on the Russian fin de siècle, the emergence of psychiatry as a new medical science, and the role that art played in the development of this objective science.