According to Anthony Elliott, psychoanalysis ‘powerfully accounts for the...essential and primary foundations of all human social activity’, namely representation, fantasy, identification and pleasure. It ‘highlights the fantasmatic dimension of cultural practices, social institutions, political norms’. For this reason, Elliott is correct in his contention that one must consider the place of the psyche in our understanding of human subjectivity if one is to bring about social and political transformation. For Elliott, the social world will never be the same again after reading Jacques Lacan because ‘his theories capture something of the strangeness that pervades the mundane and familiar in daily life’. It would be hard to argue that Lacanian psychoanalysis has little to say about socio-ideological fantasy, the denial which it involves, and the conflict it gives rise to. This chapter discusses Lacanian psychoanalysis; Lacan's Imaginary order, Symbolic order, and the Real order; the unconscious; rationalisation, socio-ideological fantasy and jouissance; jouissance and aggression; and the constitution of the ego and subjectivity.
sovereignty. But it is more likely that the world system will go
through a prolonged period of turbulence and wars provoked by sudden changes and increasingly
unstable alliances, precisely because it is reproducing the history of the formation of the
European state system on a planetary scale.
Translated from Portugese by Juliano Fiori.
In the psychological and psychoanalyticaltheories of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, as in the
structural anthropology of Claude Lévi-Strauss, mythology occupies a
The recognition of a female subject is relatively recent in Western philosophy, through Western intellectual history, it has been assumed to be normatively male. This book provides the first English commentary on Luce Irigaray's poetic text, Elemental Passions, setting it within its context within continental thought. It explores Irigaray's images and intentions, developing the gender drama that takes place within her book, and draws the reader into the conversation in the text between 'I-woman' and 'you-man'. In Irigaray's philosophy of sexual difference love is of ultimate significance for the development and mutual relationship of two subjects. The book explains how the lack of a subject position for women is related to the emergence of rigid binaries, and catches a hint of how subversive attention to fluidity is to the masculinist pattern. This emphasis on desire and sexual difference obviously intersects with the psychoanalytic theories of S. Freud and J. Lacan, theories which had enormous impact on French philosophers of the time. Irigaray has used vivid imagery from the very beginning of her writings. A few of her images, in particular that of the lips, have become famous in feminist writings. The development of mutually affirming sexual subjects, different but not oppositional, and thereby the destabilizing of traditional binary categories of oppositional logic, is simultaneously highly innovative and has far-reaching consequences. The book presents a critique of Irigaray's methods and contentions to critical scrutiny, revisiting the idea of fluidity in relation to logic.
From its earliest days, horror film has turned to examples of the horror genre in fiction, such as the Victorian Gothic, for source material. The horror film has continually responded to cultural pressures and ideological processes that resulted in new, mutated forms of the genre. Adaptation in horror cinema is a useful point of departure for articulating numerous socio-cultural trends. Adaptation for the purposes of survival proves the impetus for many horror movie monsters. This book engages generic and thematic adaptations in horror cinema from a wide range of aesthetic, cultural, political and theoretical perspectives. These diverse approaches further evidence the horror genre's obsession with corporeal transformation and narratological re-articulation. Many horror films such as Thomas Edison's Frankenstein, John S. Robertson's Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, David Cronenberg'sVideodrome, Abel Ferrara's Body Snatchers, and Terence Fisher's The Gorgon are discussed in the book. The book sheds welcome light upon some of the more neglected horror films of cinema's first century, and interrogates the myriad alterations and re-envisionings filmmakers must negotiate as they transport tales of terror between very different modes of artistic expression. It extends the volume's examination of adaptation as both an aesthetic process and a thematic preoccupation by revealing the practice of self-reflexivity and addresses the remake as adaptation. The book analyses the visual anarchy of avant-garde works, deploys the psychoanalytic film theory to interpret how science and technology impact societal secularisation, and explores the experimental extremes of adaptation in horror film.
Soviet Marxism was not only a western project, but emerged as a
result of the tensions that arise in the
relationship between Soviet Marxist critics and psychoanalytictheory. Martin Miller investigated some of the potential factors
that led to this ideological split within the Soviet Union
(Freud’s statement that “communism is an untenable
illusion,” Trotsky’s enthusiastic
Rigid binaries and masculinistic logic
More than one subject:
Irigaray and psychoanalytictheory
As original as Irigaray’s work is, it is nonetheless situated firmly in the
French philosophy of the twentieth century. Some of the dominant
themes of that philosophy were drawn from Hegel, either in agreement or
disagreement with him (Descombes 1980: 12): themes such as the nature
of the subject, identity and difference, and the role of desire (Butler 1999;
Gutting 2001). As we will see in the course of this book, Irigaray takes up
these themes, but in
else’s. It becomes “one’s own”
only when … the speaker appropriates the word, adapting it to his own
semantic expressive intention (Bakhtin, 1981 : 293–294).
Psychoanalytictheory’s emphasis on the formation of the self also
provided certain insights into the formation of ‘the Other’ and the
dialectical relationship that exists between the ‘self ’ and ‘the Other’
(see Freud’s (1938) ‘object relations theory’), with a particular emphasis being placed on the unconscious dialogue that takes place between
the self and the ‘Other’, an internalised dialogue which
concept of the ‘masculine masquerade’, a term taken from
psychoanalytictheory. I shall examine films, dating broadly from the middle period of
Leconte’s career to date, which are based on, or incorporate elements
from, traditional masculine genres (the buddy movie, the road movie, the
western). The chapter will examine the extent to which Leconte subverts the
macho models offered by these genres, by allowing the spectator to witness
historians, psychoanalysts, and ‘psychohistorians’ to date, however, suggests that no such simple solution exists, and of course, as we see below, such a solution has been critiqued as ‘ahistorical’. This chapter focuses on the use of psychoanalysis (a subset of psychology) in history: uses of other forms of psychology are discussed in later chapters, in particular in chapter 15 on the emotions. 4
Psychoanalytictheory was developed by Sigmund Freud in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, but was little employed by historians in the first half of the
Multiple subjects and fluid boundaries
What could be meant by ‘fluid logic’? What would be its characteristics?
What difference would it make to philosophical or psychoanalytictheory
if it took fluidity seriously and allowed it to destabilize the binary system
of traditional logic? What would be its creative possibilities, and what
would be its difficulties? These questions have been growing ever more
insistent as we have explored Elemental Passions. We wish to use this
final chapter to begin to address them.
Fluid logic and Irigaray