Search results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 167 items for :

  • "psychological impact" x
  • Refine by access: All content x
Clear All
Abstract only

From 1348 to 1350 Europe was devastated by an epidemic that left between a third and one half of the population dead. This book traces, through contemporary writings, the calamitous impact of the Black Death in Europe, with a particular emphasis on its spread across England from 1348 to 1349. It charts the social and psychological impact of the plague, and its effect on the late-medieval economy. Focusing on England, an exceptionally well documented region, the book then offers a wide range of evidence for the plague's variegated repercussions on the economy and, no less complex, on social and religious conduct. It is concerned with the British experience of plague in the fourteenth century. Students of intellectual history will find a wealth of pseudo-scientific explanations of the plague ranging from astrological conjunctions, through earthquakes releasing toxic vapours, to well poisoning by Jews. From narrative accounts, often of heartrending immediacy, the book further proceeds to a variety of contemporary responses, drawn from many parts of Christian Europe. It then explains contemporary claims that the plague had been caused by human agency. The book attempts to explain the plague, which was universally regarded as an expression of divine vengeance for the sins of humankind.

David Bolton

) This chapter provides an overview of the unfolding understanding of the psychological impact of the violence, with reference to key studies, research reviews and other key reports published between 1969 and 1999. In the main, and in view of the weight of material, this chapter focuses on studies and reviews relating to the impact of the violence on adults, although important and broadly similar

in Conflict, peace and mental health
Rosemary Horrox

This section introduction presents an overview of the historiography and provides background to the following translations that chart the social and psychological impact of the plague, and its effects on the late-medieval economy. In the course of the twentieth century historians generally became much less willing to ascribe sweeping cultural or psychological changes to the plague. The re-assessment of the plague's impact went on a revision of the accepted levels of plague mortality. J. Huizinga's famous evocation of the late middle ages stands in the same tradition as J. J. Jusserand's description of the religious scepticism which followed the plague. Cardinal Gasquet had been convinced that the first outbreak of plague had carried off half the English population. For contemporary chroniclers, the behaviour of the lower classes after the plague was a clear sign of the world plunging further into sin. The belief that the loss of one third of the population could be absorbed without immediate economic distress rested on the assumption that the population of pre-plague England had become too large for the available resources.

in The Black Death
Michael Robinson

This chapter demonstrates that qualitative and quantitative evidence differentiating Ireland from UK must be contextualised within larger societal, economic and administrative frameworks. Rather than an Irish biological disposition to mental illness, it was the ongoing Anglo-Irish War, 1919–1921, which explains the high waiting list figures amongst neurasthenic pensioners in ‘South Ireland’. The guerrilla conflict caused much disruption in the rehabilitation of disabled Great War veterans. This chapter also comprehends the psychological impact this traumatising homecoming would have had on returning Great War veterans. The opportunity to work and provide for oneself was a fundamental component in the Ministry’s rehabilitation of disabled pensioners. Further discrimination attached itself to Irish men who had served in a British Army uniform, now viewed by many in increasingly nationalist areas of Ireland as an oppressive and occupying force. The lack of societal appreciation, training and treatment facilities increased the likelihood of unemployment amongst Irish Great War veterans which, in turn, intensified psychoneurotic symptoms and increased the likelihood of veterans turning to the Ministry for relief or applying to the department for medical treatment. The revolutionary period ensured that Ireland was the least suitable area in the United Kingdom for a mentally ill veteran to return to.

in Shell-shocked British Army veterans in Ireland, 1918–39

With race as a central theme, this book presents racial stratification as the underlying system which accounts for the difference in outcomes of Whites and Blacks in the labour market. Critical race theory (CRT) is employed to discuss the operation, research, maintenance and impact of racial stratification. The power of this book is the innovative use of a stratification framework to expose the pervasiveness of racial inequality in the labour market. It teaches readers how to use CRT to investigate the racial hierarchy and it provides a replicable framework to identify the racial order based on insight from the Irish case. There is a four-stage framework in the book which helps readers understand how migrants navigate the labour market from the point of migration to labour participation. The book also highlights minority agency and how migrants respond to their marginality. The examples of how social acceptance can be applied in managing difference in the workplace are an added bonus for those interested in diversity and inclusion. This book is the first of its kind in Ireland and across Europe to present inequality, racism and discrimination in the labour market from a racial stratification perspective. While this book is based on Irish data, the CRT theoretical approach, as well as its insight into migrant perspectives, poses a strong appeal to scholars of sociology, social justice, politics, intercultural communication and economics with interest in race and ethnicity, critical whiteness and migration. It is a timely contribution to CRT which offers scholars a method to conduct empirical study of racial stratification across different countries bypassing the over-reliance on secondary data. It will also appeal to countries and scholars examining causal racism and how it shapes racial inequality.

Open Access (free)
Environmental justice and citizen science in a post-truth age
Editors: and

This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,” citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing, witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues, as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from emerging scholars and community activists.


The book explores the relationship between violence against women on one hand, and the rights to health and reproductive health on the other. It argues that violation of the right to health is a consequence of violence, and that (state) health policies might be a cause of – or create the conditions for – violence against women. It significantly contributes to feminist and international human rights legal scholarship by conceptualising a new ground-breaking idea, violence against women’s health (VAWH), using the Hippocratic paradigm as the backbone of the analysis. The two dimensions of violence at the core of the book – the horizontal, ‘interpersonal’ dimension and the vertical ‘state policies’ dimension – are investigated through around 70 decisions of domestic, regional and international judicial or quasi-judicial bodies (the anamnesis). The concept of VAWH, drawn from the anamnesis, enriches the traditional concept of violence against women with a human rights-based approach to autonomy and a reflection on the pervasiveness of patterns of discrimination (diagnosis). VAWH as theorised in the book allows the reconceptualisation of states’ obligations in an innovative way, by identifying for both dimensions obligations of result, due diligence obligations, and obligations to progressively take steps (treatment). The book eventually asks whether it is not international law itself that is the ultimate cause of VAWH (prognosis).

Abstract only
American horror comics as Cold War commentary and critique

Printing Terror places horror comics of the mid-twentieth century in dialogue with the anxieties of their age. It rejects the narrative of horror comics as inherently and necessarily subversive and explores, instead, the ways in which these texts manifest white male fears over America’s changing sociological landscape. It examines two eras: the pre-CCA period of the 1940s and 1950s, and the post-CCA era to 1975. The authors examine each of these periods through the lenses of war, gender, and race, demonstrating that horror comics are centred upon white male victimhood and the monstrosity of the gendered and/or racialised other. It is of interest to scholars of horror, comics studies, and American history. It is suitably accessible to be used in undergraduate classes.

David Bolton

-assessment The adult study was undertaken by the Trust with the support of Professor David Clark and his colleagues, based then at Oxford University. The key aim was to gain an understanding of the level and nature of exposure to traumatic experiences and of the psychological impact and risks associated with the bombing. The aim was to inform service plans, in particular the development and delivery of trauma

in Conflict, peace and mental health
Abstract only
Archiving the oneiric
Emily-Rose Baker
Diane Otosaka

about viruses, masks, social distancing and other symbols of pandemic life, the transnational nature of anxiety dreams activated by COVID-19 is profound, affirming the centrality of dreaming to the ways in which we process trauma across borders. Media outlets including the New York Times (2020), the BBC (2020) and even Healthline (2020) have all evidenced the pronounced psychological impact of the pandemic on a global

in Dreams and atrocity