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Popular culture is invariably a vehicle for the dominant ideas of its age. Never was this more true than in the late-19th and early 20th centuries, when it reflected the nationalist and imperialist ideologies current throughout Europe. This book examines the various media through which nationalist ideas were conveyed in late-Victorian and Edwardian times in the theatre, "ethnic" shows, juvenile literature, education and the iconography of popular art. Nineteenth-century music hall was known as the 'fount of patriotism'. A heroic and romantic vision of Empire helped to widen the appeal of British imperialism, which newspaper and magazine editors insisted on communicating to the new mass reading public. Juvenile fiction included Victorian children's books, and very few seemed deliberately anti-imperialist. The book offers a bridge between the pre-1914 period and the interwar years and between the public school and state school systems. It discusses the case of Peter Lobengula as a focus for racial attributes in late Victorian and Edwardian times. The imperial economic vision lay ready to hand for the publicists and public relations men who saw the Empire Marketing Board as one of the great opportunities in the inter-war years to develop their craft. The book also argues that whereas the Scout movement was created in the atmosphere of defensive Empire in the Edwardian period, Scouting ideology underwent a significant change in the post-war years. Girl Guides remind us that the role of girls and women in youth organisations and imperial ideologies has been too little studied.

Invented traditions, propaganda and imperialism
J. A. Mangan

will consider two ostensibly autonomous, but, in reality, linked attempts at establishing late nineteenth-century British traditions both associated with the English public school system – the socio-psychological ‘tradition’ of martial sacrifice and the socio-political ‘tradition’ of Empire Day. They were, and were intended to be, mutually reinforcing mechanisms, of solidarity and survival. To an

in Imperialism and Popular Culture
David Gribble

himself was executed in 1909 for allegedly leading a rebellion in Barcelona, and the Modern Schools all over the world died out over the next thirty years. The last Modern School in Britain, the International Modern School in Whitechapel, London, ran only from 1921 to 1928. The New Schools movement compared with anarchist schools The New Schools movement in Britain, which must be distinguished from the Modern Schools movement, was founded by middle-class teachers looking for an alternative to the public school system. It included Bedales (Hampshire), Abbotsholme

in Changing anarchism
Christopher Prior

This chapter will argue that, in contrast with the usual argument that officials worked effectively alongside one another, bound by fraternal sentiments fostered in large part by the public school system, the colonial services of Africa were in fact riven with tensions along a number of axes, including age and different approaches to governance. Most significant of these, however, was officials’ ongoing search for individualistic self-fulfillment untrammelled by the endeavours and attitudes of others. Whilst many recognised that socialising was essential to their morale, many officials simultaneously resented the constraints that being a member of a small, inward-looking, and gossip-driven European community placed upon them. Public schools therefore failed in their efforts to inculcate all with a sense of an esprit de corps amongst Britain’s overseas officials.

in Exporting empire
Schoolboy literature and the creation of a colonial chivalric code
J.A. Mangan

sacrificial warriors’ of the public school system which it attempted so assiduously to create in the late Victorian and Edwardian periods. 16 The Hill is impregnated with an atmosphere of pre-ordained imperial destiny. ‘At Harrow and Eton,’ remarks one pupil, ‘one is licked into shape for the big things, diplomacy, politics, the Services.’ 17 The most vivid scenes in the book

in Imperialism and juvenile literature
Abstract only
Julie Thorpe

maintained that the well-funded private Czech schools undermined Austria’s public school system and signified the Czech minority’s belonging to Czechoslovakia instead of the Austrian state. That this rhetoric of German ownership of Austria was shared by Austrofascist policy makers – who deemed even the ‘good Croats’ a threat to national identity in the New Austria – indicates how closely German-nationalists followed the designs of the Austrofascist state. Conversely, Austrofascist leaders relied on an army of national activists in the borderlands to act as rank and file

in Pan-Germanism and the Austrofascist state, 1933–38
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Anna Green and Kathleen Troup

60.1 percent. Ten years later, however, postwar occupation figures reflected a percentage decline to 56.3 percent. In 1930, with the onset of the Depression, the figure had dropped to 52.8 percent. Numerically, there was a steady rise in the number of gainfully employed black women in the District of Columbia during the period from 1880 to 1930. 5 The District also had a large public school system for blacks and a high concentration of educated black professionals. The District of Columbia public school system for blacks – Miner Normal School, Howard University

in The houses of history
Abstract only
Emma Vickers

war rather than oft-­cited rates of rejection that influenced the government to reappraise the physical health of its potential combatants. Following the end of the war and in light of damaging evidence that questioned the efficacy of the victorious British Army, strengthening the male physique became a priority.4 This fixation was particularly evident within the public school system. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, exercise had already been introduced into public schooling to divert the potentially destructive energies of young adolescent boys. Team

in Queen and country
Abstract only
Julian Mitchell’s Another Country
Jonathan Bolton

precisely the kind of individualism, integrity and independence that Malcolm says is characteristic of the game, and yet Bennett will be punished severely for asserting that liberty. In cricket, as in society, Mitchell suggests, the integrity of the system must be upheld or it becomes corruptible. In both games and society, there is always the potential for cheating, bending the rules to favor one group or person over another. In the public-school system there are numerous things that are not cricket : privilege, rank, servitude, to name but a few

in The Blunt Affair
Reading empire’s absence in the novels of William Golding
Rachael Gilmour

their narrative form, but also their lexicon of cruelty, from the culture of English imperialism. By the time Peregrine Worsthorne came to ask what might happen to ‘a public school system designed to produce a race of colonial administrators without any colonies to administer?’, Golding had already offered, in his first novel Lord of the Flies, arguably the bleakest conceivable answer. The boys stranded on his island are products of the English public school system and Gilmour and Schwarz, End of Empire and the English Novel.indd 96 18/07/2011 11:14:18 t he en

in End of empire and the English novel since 1945