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This book is the first collection of translated sources on towns in medieval England between 1100 and 1500. Drawing on a variety of written evidence for the significan and dynamic period, it provides an overview of English medieval urban history. Readers are invited to consider the challenges and opportunities presented by a wide range of sources. The merchant, for example, is seen from different angles - as an economic agent, as a religious patron and in Chaucer's fictional depiction. The prominence of London and the other major cities is reflected in the selection, but due attention is also given to a number of small market towns. Occasions of conflict are represented, as are examples of groups and societies which both contributed to and helped to contain the tensions within urban society. Changing indicators of wealth and poverty are considered, together with evidence for more complex questions concerning the quality of life in the medieval town. The book moves between the experience of urban life and contemporary perceptions of it - from domestic furnishings to legends of civic origins and plays in which townspeople enacted their own history.

John Beckett

record publishing became popular in the nineteenth century. Every published edition of a source extended the range of possibilities for both national and local historians, but it was the principle of public responsibility for records which really stimulated change. The founding of the Public Record Office in the mid-nineteenth century improved access to the national archives, and from 1889 the principle of local responsibility for archives was enshrined in the legislation creating county councils. In this chapter we look initially at the growth of access to records

in Writing local history
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John Privilege

unworthiness for the role and lacked the confidence and the inclination to undertake public responsibility, should become the spiritual leader of Catholic Ireland. Notes 111 112 113 114 115 1 6 117 118 119 Freeman’s Journal, 12 Jan. 1891. Cullen, Economic History, p. 149. Townshend, Political Violence, p. 115. Lee, Modernisation, p. 73. Vaughan, Landlords and Tenants, pp. 9–11. Larkin, Modern Irish State, p. 24. Toner Biography, Logue Papers, ADA, box 10, folder 4, ch. 5, p. 12. Martin to Logue, 25 Feb. 1880, Logue Papers, RDA, no. 107 (1880). Dublin Mansion House Relief

in Michael Logue and the Catholic Church in Ireland, 1879–1925
Reclaiming art and culture for the common good

This book is about what happens when we turn culture into an industry, and how we can fix this. Culture is central to what it is to be human, to live in a social world. The key argument of the book is that culture, as an object of public policy, should be moved out of "industry" and back into the sphere of public responsibility alongside health, education, social welfare, and basic infrastructure. The book outlines the policy context for Chris Smith's adoption of "creative industries", a folding of art and popular culture into a dynamic new knowledge economy. It discusses the current situation of "polycrisis" as neoliberal capitalism gives way to a period of uncertainty and insecurity. The book confronts the common idea that culture is a luxury, something to be enjoyed after the essentials have been met. It outlines the Foundation Economy Collective's foundational approach, showing how it can be applied to the cultural sector. The book argues that any cultural policy must address both the small-scale local economies and the large-scale corporate cultural industries. It addresses the question of the everyday local economies of small and independent businesses. These were addressed by the Greater London Council, whose "SME approach" was very influential in New Labour's adoption of cultural and creative industries.

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How performative accounting forged the ills of industry
J. Andrew Mendelsohn

J. Andrew Mendelsohn’s chapter focuses on economic, governmental, and medical policies in early modern mining societies in Saxony. Starting with the example of a penny box of German miners’ societies and the in and out of clinking pennies, the weekly payments of miners to the societies’ penny box, and the money’s use for injured or harmed miners suffering from miners diseases, J. Andrew Mendelsohn combines economic history (miners’ societies and sick funds as the earliest form of social insurance) and medical history (expertise on miners’ diseases as the earliest form of occupational health). Accounting, Mendelsohn argues, constituted each in relation to the other.

Mines and mining towns were both an important economic sector and a kind of experimental field for medical observation and knowledge production, amid the background of attempts to govern the laboring body of miners. This was because mining investors, with their public responsibility in miners, had a vested interest in miners living longer and healthier (and thus more productive) lives. In this sense Mendelsohn argues that all-pervasive values and practices of welfare, effective work, and good governance – in both a moral and technical sense – entailed accounting for anything significant happening to the bodies of miners. For this reason, the practice of the official mining physician involved substantial administrative organisation, managerial and medical oversight, and various forms of recordkeeping, especially simple forms of accounting, all within a framework of accountability that was both political and economic.

in Accounting for health
Muslim–Christian relations in the modern world

The Christian–Muslim engagement may be experienced at many levels: theological, political, cultural and global. The nature of Christian–Muslim relations in various states is also determining the scope of these states' international relations and alliances. Further Christianity experiences Islam as a religious and theological challenge. Since the earliest period in its history, the Islamic tradition has been conscious of the religious diversity of the human race and considered it an issue of importance. Yohannan Friedmann has reminded us that according to the Islamic tradition Islam is not only the historical religion and institutional framework that was brought into existence by the Muslim prophet Muhammad in the seventh century, but also the primordial religion of humankind, revealed to Adam at the time of his creation. It is thus that Christianity locates the challenge of Islam, not just as a historical encounter, which is of importance; or as a political force in the modern world; but also as a theological challenge. There is an intimacy to the Christian–Muslim encounter, which offers a familiarity, but allows for little theological commonality due to difference. Thus throughout the centuries since the rise of Islam, Muslim–Christian relations have revolved around this double axis of familiar, biblical appeal and strenuous, religious critique. It is this story that this book attempts to tell in a contemporary sense set against the global encounter between Christianity and Islam in the modern world.

Prisoners of the past
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This book examines the impact that nostalgia has had on the Labour Party’s political development since 1951. In contrast to existing studies that have emphasised the role played by modernity, it argues that nostalgia has defined Labour’s identity and determined the party’s trajectory over time. It outlines how Labour, at both an elite and a grassroots level, has been and remains heavily influenced by a nostalgic commitment to an era of heroic male industrial working-class struggle. This commitment has hindered policy discussion, determined the form that the modernisation process has taken and shaped internal conflict and cohesion. More broadly, Labour’s emotional attachment to the past has made it difficult for the party to adjust to the socioeconomic changes that have taken place in Britain. In short, nostalgia has frequently left the party out of touch with the modern world. In this way, this book offers an assessment of Labour’s failures to adapt to the changing nature and demands of post-war Britain.

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Victorian medical men could suffer numerous setbacks on their individual paths to professionalisation, and Thomas Elkanah Hoyle's career offers a telling exemplar. This book addresses a range of the financial, professional, and personal challenges that faced and sometimes defeated the aspiring medical men of England and Wales. Spanning the decades 1780-1890, from the publication of the first medical directory to the second Medical Registration Act, it considers their careers in England and Wales, and in the Indian Medical Service. The book questions the existing picture of broad and rising medical prosperity across the nineteenth century to consider the men who did not keep up with professionalising trends. Financial difficulty was widespread in medical practice, and while there are only a few who underwent bankruptcy or insolvency identified among medical suicides, the fear of financial failure could prove a powerful motive for self-destruction. The book unpicks the life stories of men such as Henry Edwards, who could not sustain a professional persona of disinterested expertise. In doing so it uncovers the trials of the medical marketplace and the pressures of medical masculinity. The book also considers charges against practitioners that entailed their neglect, incompetence or questionable practice which occasioned a threat to patients' lives. The occurrence and reporting of violent crime by medical men, specifically serious sexual assault and murder is also discussed. A tiny proportion of medical practitioners also experienced life as a patient in an asylum.

Problems and prospects Essays in honour of R. B. McKean
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As a historian of late imperial Russia McKean thus defies easy classification. He is both variously optimist and pessimist, at each instance aware of the complexities and contingencies of history. The imperial regime was willing to concede only the façade of a parliament, as an analysis of the Duma between 1905 and 1917 makes clear. Two examinations of late imperial intellectuals perceive some rays of hope for the late imperial regime. Murray Frame puts forward an alternative reading of late imperial civil society. According to Vincent Barnett, one leading student of the late imperial economy thought that it was undergoing an impressive expansion under tsarism. Although it was events in the capital that secured Nicholas II's downfall, the fate of the late imperial regime was perhaps more affected by its relations with the peasantry: the vast majority of the country's population. It is to McKean's credit, however, that he was able to introduce genuine doubt into a scholarly community all too keen to write off Nicholas II, largely accepting Haimson's thesis that there was a crisis of revolutionary proportions affecting late imperial Russia pre-1914. It is a pity that Haimson has not openly responded to McKean's challenging and more nuanced interpretation of late imperial Russia. Further research, particularly into civil society in the provinces, may well yet alter further our perceptions of late imperial Russia's problems and prospects.

Cheshire on the eve of civil war
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This book aims to revisit the county study as a way into understanding the dynamics of the English civil war during the 1640s. It explores gentry culture and the extent to which early Stuart Cheshire could be said to be a ‘county community’. It investigates the responses of the county’s governing elite and puritan religious establishment to highly polarising interventions by the central government and Laudian ecclesiastical authorities during Charles I’s Personal Rule. The second half of the book provides a rich and detailed analysis of the petitioning movements and side-taking in Cheshire during 1641-42. This important contribution to understanding the local origins and outbreak of civil war in England will be of interest to all students and scholars studying the English Revolution.