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James Kelman is Scotland's most influential contemporary prose artist. This is a book-length study of his groundbreaking novels, analysing and contextualising each in detail. It argues that while Kelman offers a coherent and consistent vision of the world, each novel should be read as a distinct literary response to particular aspects of contemporary working-class language and culture. Historicised through diverse contexts such as Scottish socialism, public transport, emigration, ‘Booker Prize’ culture and Glasgow's controversial ‘City of Culture’ status in 1990, the book offers readings of Kelman's style, characterisation and linguistic innovations. This study resists the prevalent condemnations of Kelman as a miserable realist, and produces evidence that he is acutely aware of an unorthodox, politicised literary tradition which transgresses definitions of what literature can or should do. Kelman is cautious about the power relationship between the working-class worlds he represents in his fiction, and the latent preconceptions embedded in the language of academic and critical commentary. In response, the study is self-critical, questioning the validity and values of its own methods. Kelman is shown to be deftly humorous, assiduously ethical, philosophically alert and politically necessary.

Digital Skills Training and the Systematic Exclusion of Refugees in Lebanon
Rabih Shibli
Sarah Kouzi

run-down public transport buses, commonly used in West Beqaa, and developed the Public Transport Regulator application that saved participants the time of waiting and provided destinations of safe pickup points. However, it is clear that these selective start-ups are not a solution that can work at scale, since funding is limited and failure is often implicitly part of such an entrepreneurship journey. Conclusion This critical examination

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Middle-Aged Syrian Women’s Contributions to Family Livelihoods during Protracted Displacement in Jordan
Dina Sidhva
Ann-Christin Zuntz
Ruba al Akash
Ayat Nashwan
, and
Areej Al-Majali

lack of business skills and access to microcredit; it also heightens domestic tensions ( Ritchie, 2018 ). In a nation-wide survey, REACH and UN Women (2016) found that 20 per cent of Syrian women in Jordan were currently working, but only 2 per cent held a work permit. More than half of working Syrian women preferred to work from home, due to lack of childcare and public transport. Similarly, cash-for-work programmes in Zaatari Camp failed to address women’s lack of access to the labour

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Congolese Experience
Justine Brabant

solid network, such as MSF. When it is time to set off, I will probably turn to the humanitarian organisation’s jeeps, which are considered safer and faster than public transport, or even to a MONUSCO flight if I want to get to hard-to-reach places quickly – for example, the high plateaus of Minembwe. If, finally, I have the misfortune to be a freelance journalist and have no media outlet placing a satellite telephone at my disposal, my usual response would probably be to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
The omnibus and urban culture in nineteenth-century Paris

Engine of Modernity: The Omnibus and Urban Culture in Nineteenth-Century Paris examines the connection between public transportation and popular culture in nineteenth-century Paris through a focus on the omnibus - a horse-drawn vehicle for mass urban transport which enabled contact across lines of class and gender. A major advancement in urban locomotion, the omnibus generated innovations in social practices by compelling passengers of diverse backgrounds to interact within the vehicle’s close confines. Although the omnibus itself did not actually have an engine, its arrival on the streets of Paris and in the pages of popular literature acted as a motor for a fundamental cultural shift in how people thought about the city, its social life, and its artistic representations. At the intersection of literary criticism and cultural history, Engine of Modernity argues that for nineteenth-century French writers and artists, the omnibus was much more than a mode of transportation. It became a metaphor through which to explore evolving social dynamics of class and gender, meditate on the meaning of progress and change, and reflect on one’s own literary and artistic practices.

Open Access (free)
Masha Belenky

is an apt metaphor for urban diversity, a sum total of human experiences contained both within the cramped space of the vehicle and between the book’s covers. But the tradition of engaging public transportation as a way to invoke a cultural moment, to grapple with a multitude of central themes of the time, and to experiment with literary form did not begin with Roubaud’s Ode . In fact, cultural fascination with public transport emerged at the same time as the first vehicle of mass transit – the omnibus – was launched in Paris in 1828 ( Plate 1 ). A horse

in Engine of modernity
Michael John Law

mentions the car only four times, concentrating his attention on the railway, Underground, bus and tram.7 Of course, these forms of public transport were fundamental to suburban development in the interwar period, but this concentration on public mobilities has occluded our understanding of the role of flexible, independent private transport brought about by the use of the car. Jackson’s generalisations about the car are not unusual in the history of this period, and such is the authority of his work that he may well have been inadvertently responsible for the continuing

in The experience of suburban modernity
Tom Haines-Doran

anti-privatisation campaign. The ‘Better Buses’ campaigns have already won bus regulation in Greater Manchester, which will go towards creating a re-integration of public transport in the region. 65 We Own It is also linked to the wide-ranging and effective Get Glasgow Moving campaign for integrated, sustainable and socially focussed transport. 66 What can we learn from these recent movements? If campaigners want to go beyond the limited and rather conservative terrain of traditional rail campaigning and start to win

in Derailed
Abstract only
Loving objects and each other

of the broad social and economic changes in the UK over the last sixty years. Nationalisation is a major factor, as are changes to policy and the modernisation of public transport. How these factors impacted on the foundation of museums varied depending on the type of vehicle concerned, and in this chapter I begin by looking at museums of trains and railways, and then of buses. While the circumstances in which transport

in Stories from small museums
More-than-human microbial methods on the bus
Charlotte Veal
Paul Hurley
Emma Roe
, and
Sandra Wilks

video calling platform Zoom between co-investigator and artist-academic Paul Hurley (PH) and co-investigator and landscape scholar Charlotte Veal (CV) in April 2022 as part of the project Routes of Infection, Routes to Safety: Understanding Risk and the Viral Imagination on Public Transport; they are two members of a four-person research team. The other two members were principal investigator and

in Knowing COVID- 19