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A Review
Herb Boyd

This review of the James Baldwin symposium at Virginia State University weighs the insights presented by a number of Black and white scholars, only a few of whom might be considered deeply informed about his life and legacy. Even so, the emerging thinkers provide a wealth of new and interesting perspectives on Baldwin, and the event was highlighted by Molefi Kete Asante’s critical lecture. His comments are a veritable call to arms, an invitation to Baldwin devotees to contend with his conclusions, a process which this article will begin.

James Baldwin Review
Theory and methodology
Ebun Joseph

the economic ladder. They are usually the same group/s at the top and bottom of the racial ladder. To determine the extent of the problem, the researcher must have an initial observation, typically from secondary data analysis. One very rich data source is the national Census data. You can also draw on data from an employability programme like EP1 which provides services and targeted interventions for migrants. If you have established that there is a differential in outcomes among people of different races, the second phase of researching racial stratification is to

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
Author:

With race as a central theme, this book presents racial stratification as the underlying system which accounts for the difference in outcomes of Whites and Blacks in the labour market. Critical race theory (CRT) is employed to discuss the operation, research, maintenance and impact of racial stratification. The power of this book is the innovative use of a stratification framework to expose the pervasiveness of racial inequality in the labour market. It teaches readers how to use CRT to investigate the racial hierarchy and it provides a replicable framework to identify the racial order based on insight from the Irish case. There is a four-stage framework in the book which helps readers understand how migrants navigate the labour market from the point of migration to labour participation. The book also highlights minority agency and how migrants respond to their marginality. The examples of how social acceptance can be applied in managing difference in the workplace are an added bonus for those interested in diversity and inclusion. This book is the first of its kind in Ireland and across Europe to present inequality, racism and discrimination in the labour market from a racial stratification perspective. While this book is based on Irish data, the CRT theoretical approach, as well as its insight into migrant perspectives, poses a strong appeal to scholars of sociology, social justice, politics, intercultural communication and economics with interest in race and ethnicity, critical whiteness and migration. It is a timely contribution to CRT which offers scholars a method to conduct empirical study of racial stratification across different countries bypassing the over-reliance on secondary data. It will also appeal to countries and scholars examining causal racism and how it shapes racial inequality.

Abstract only
Racial stratification as a ‘default’ starting position
Ebun Joseph

varied distances they would have to negotiate to attain the same result/outcome in the labour market. It immediately presents three interesting interpretations about how racial hierarchies impact on the lives of those on the strata. The first obvious implication is that groups stratified higher up on the racial ladder will have easier access to their labour market objectives than those lower down. The second is the converse of the first: the level of difficulty and distance to attain the same economic goals as those at the top gets progressively more difficult and more

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
Ebun Joseph

, and they resided in the same parts of the major cities, lived in similar conditions, laboured in similar jobs and met comparably derisory attitudes in their new country, ‘the Irish were not quite immigrant enough’. Without downplaying the differential and, oftentimes, harsh treatment of the Irish in the diaspora, a black–white dichotomy was somewhat operational. In reality, the Irish were located some notches away from the bottom of the racial ladder, above Black Africans and non-English-speaking Whites, a point that is usually omitted in the discourse (Joseph, 2015

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
Ebun Joseph

relationships do not judge individuals based on their group’s stereotypes but on the actual conflictual actions. People want their difference accepted, and not to be used as a reason for which they are judged and assigned a lower stratum on the racial ladder. JOSEPH 9781526134394 PRINT.indd 185 03/07/2020 15:44 186 Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market It is important not to confuse this form of acceptance with lack of self-acceptance; a view commonly held about Blacks that their feeling of not belonging is related to internalised feelings of

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
Abstract only
Chris Gilligan

Global South. The commodities that carry the ‘Made in China’, ‘Made in Pakistan’ or ‘Made in Vietnam’ mark on their labels include goods branded Nike, Apple, Prada, Samsung …5 In virtually every country in the world, consumers can find McDonald’s, Starbucks, iPhones and Adidas trainers. Capitalist production and consumption is global. Throughout the twentieth century, capitalism shed its White skin. It is now multicultural. That does not mean that people of all ‘races’ are equal. Multiculturalism tips the hierarchical racial ladder of Victorian racial science on its

in Northern Ireland and the crisis of anti-racism
Abstract only
Ebun Joseph

environment and access its socio-economic resources and status. Some groups, however, routinely appear at the bottom and some at the top of both the economic and racial ladder. This is despite the consensus that race or biology does not influence IQ or work performance. Out of 4.4 million immigrants in Europe in 2017, an estimated 2.4 million to the EU-28 were from non-EU countries, with 1.9 million people previously residing in one EU member state migrating to another (Eurostat, 2019). Despite their commonality as immigrants, there is evidence of an extant differential in

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
Abstract only
The London Missionary Society in Polynesia and Australia, 1800–50
Anna Johnston

hierarchies, their view of the Australian Aborigines as the lowest rung of the racial ladder also meant that they believed them to be especially in need of Christian salvation. Even Threlkeld, whose personal experience with Aborigines in the colony led him to become more generous in his judgements than others, saw Aboriginal people as representing a kind of ‘there but by the grace of

in Colonial frontiers
How migrants negotiate racially stratifying systems
Ebun Joseph

one might be tempted to focus on individual motivation as the reason for the disparity in outcome, we cannot ignore the hierarchical nature of the socio-­economic ­environment JOSEPH 9781526134394 PRINT.indd 167 03/07/2020 15:44 168 Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market which means that migrants initially stratified at the bottom of the racial ladder are faced with harsher conditions, thus requiring more effort to access paid labour at their desired level. In other words, mobility is dependent on where one’s group is located on the strata

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market