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Film Renters in Manchester, 1910-1920
Richard Brown

Although film renting began in Britain in London, the rapid spread of cinemas after 1910 meant that there was a demand for distribution closer to the sites of exhibition. As a long-established trading centre, Manchester was well placed to become the hub for Northern distribution, and local trade directories list distributors from 1912 onwards. These clustered at first near Victoria Station, but soon moved to Deansgate, as independent distributors began to outnumber branch offices of the major companies. The life-expectancy of these was short, and the First Worlds War affected their business, but they remain an important and under-researched aspect of the early British cinema business.

Film Studies
Ian Carter

9780719065668_4_008.qxd 29/01/2008 12:39PM Page 214 8 The rise and fall of the toy train empire System builders ritain’s twentieth-century proprietary model railway trade1 resembles marine ecology, with many small fish trailling in a couple of barracudas’ wake. ‘A couple’ is the right phrase: for though different companies rose to prominence and fell again, this market was always dominated by two or three players. Between the two world wars Bassett-Lowke fought Hornby 0 gauge. In the austere later forties and early fifties Trix Twin stood against Hornby Dublo

in British railway enthusiasm
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Basins, warehouses and wharves in canal-age Manchester
Peter Maw

Oldfield Lane and Ordsall Lane.65 In a much larger development, the company built a new complex of coal wharves between Stanley Street and Ordsall Lane on Ringspiggott field, a 90,000-square-yard plot purchased from the Bridgewater Trustees in 1833, the bulk of which was required for the railway to Bolton.66 The building of the coal wharves for the canal trade cost £2,300 and they were completed by 1834.67 A large manure wharf was also developed to the south of the canal at a cost of £739.68 The company’s wharves for the railway trade were established to the north of the

in Transport and the industrial city
Liberals and Labour in the East Midlands coalfield
David Howell

, Respectable Radicals: Studies in the Politics of Railway Trade Unionism (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1999), pp. 223–37. 59 For political developments see Ross McKibbin, Parties and People, 1914–1951 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), chapter 1; John Turner, British Politics and the Great War: Coalition and Conflict 1915–1918 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992), chapters 10–11. 60 A Liberal won Mansfield in a straight fight in 1922 on an anti-socialist platform. Hancock backed the Conservative at Belper in 1924. 61 For Kenyon in 1918, see DC, 30 November, 7

in The art of the possible
John Herson

Forebridge. The first-born, James, started work as a telegraph messenger on the railway and by 1901 he had been promoted to clerk. He joined the Railway Clerks’ Association, and by 1909 was the union’s organiser and Vice-Chairman in Stafford.47 Although railway trade unionism strengthened in the 1900s, it still needed bravery to become an activist in the face of company hostility. This says much about James Coleman’s confidence, dynamism and concern to play a socially supportive role. In 1899 he married Ada Ann Boydon, the daughter of a local butcher. She was a Catholic.48

in Divergent paths
Abstract only
Ian Carter

world’s first model railway club,’ was founded in 1910.55 Totals rose to five to seven thousand by 1939, then – despite ‘troublesome international problems and other 9780719065668_4_003.qxd 29/01/2008 12:38PM Page 65 Associated life distractions which might casually be viewed as inimical’ – increased modestly through the Second World War.56 Postwar austerity, and acute shortage of material – from tinplate for toy trains to special steels for die-making – inhibited the model railway trade’s reconstruction; but austerity did little to curb enthusiasm. In 1952 Edward

in British railway enthusiasm
Ian Carter

manufacturers were selling toys worth £1 million (at contemporary values) each year.36 Much of this came from railway toys. Still a power in today’s European model railway trade, Märklin shipped stock from their Württemberg factory in Göttingen. From the principal German powerhouse, Nuremberg, came a 9780719065668_4_007.qxd 29/01/2008 12:39PM Page 197 Modelling and engineering flood of railway toys from a host of companies: Bing, Bud, Carette, Doll, Falk, Issmayer and the rest. By 1914 Gebruder Bing operated the world’s largest toy factory.37 Railway modelling: the space

in British railway enthusiasm
Exclusive brethren
Ian Carter

model railways, at least, history has dealt us some strange cards. Of these, there’s probably none more frustrating than the question of “standards.” ’1 How true! In the late nineteenth century, dimensional autarky ruled in model railway engineering and in the toy railway trade. An engineer reduced prototype dimensions for locomotives, rolling stock, trackwork or whatever to a scale convenient for his purpose then built his artefact to that size. When constructing cruder replicas to his chosen scale, gauge and dimensions for wheel tread and flange depth, each toy

in British railway enthusiasm
Open Access (free)
The oddity of democracy
Rodney Barker

powerful. Satire undermines identity by ridiculing its inconsistencies, limitations, or pretensions; it not only says that the emperor has no clothes, but that it is possible to laugh at the ones that he does have. The cartoonist Low's regular characterisation of the Labour and then national government minister the railway trade unionist Jimmy Thomas, who had a predilection for the high life, as ‘The Rt Hon Dress Suit MP’, was not unkind, but was certainly effective, and concentrated on the alleged social ambitions of a man who in his own presentation of himself was a

in Cultivating political and public identity
Andrew Thorpe

Study in Class Consciousness (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1st edition, 1958). 18 Labour Party Annual Conference Report, 1940 (London: Labour Party, 1940), p. 96; David Howell, Respectable Radicals: Studies in the Politics of Railway Trade Unionism (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1999), pp. 7–8. 19 See for instance Stephen Bach and Rebecca Kolins Givan, ‘Union responses to public– private partnerships in the National Health Service’, in Sue Fernie and David Metcalf (eds), Trade Unions: Resurgence or Demise (London: Routledge, 2005), pp. 118–37. Wrigley.indb 92 08/03/2017 17

in Labour and working-class lives