Paul Sargent

4 Rationalities underpinning the system Introduction The discourse on the failure of the prison, the failure of the institutional model and the failure of juvenile justice system in one form or another has provided the impetus for the reform of the juvenile justice system in Ireland. This registration of failure was a constant theme from the mid-­nineteenth century when reformists argued for the reformatory model to replace imprisonment for juvenile offenders. In Ireland, by the early 1970s the perceived failure of the Children Act 1908 to cater adequately for

in Wild Arabs and savages
State–society relations and conflict in post-socialist Transcaucasia
Barbara Christophe

10 Bringing culture back into a concept of rationality: state–society relations and conflict in post-socialist Transcaucasia Barbara Christophe ,   number of contributions to the vivid debate on ‘ethnic’ violence have been classified according to their underlying theoretical assumptions (Brubaker and Laitin 1998). Approaches which follow the culturalistic turn of sociology are counterpoised with more conventional concepts, based on the premises of rational choice theory. But the constant failure to relate empirical studies to one of these competing

in Potentials of disorder
Michael Parker and Micaela Ghisleni

5 The unbearable desire for explicitness and rationality in bioethics Michael Parker and Micaela Ghisleni ‘[S]omeone can only claim that their actions or decisions stem from moral conviction or are dictated by moral considerations – are in short part of an attempt to live by ethical standards, if they can say why those actions are right, if they can show how they are justified. To have a moral belief is, whatever else it is, to believe that the world will be a better place if certain things happen and others do not, and that it will be a worse place if the

in From reason to practice in bioethics
Japanese contestation of medical high technology
Emiko Ohnuki-Tierney

philosophy and thus it is based on the assumption that rationality is the defining feature of humans – a definition not shared by other peoples who contest brain death as a person’s death and organ transplantation as a new medical miracle. The specific cultural context of the Japanese reluctance to accept the new technology is discussed. The chapter also points to serious political and ethical implications

in Western medicine as contested knowledge
Brad Beaven

1 Rational recreation and the creation of the model citizen, c. 1850–1914 T he period 1850–1914 was an age in which working-class males benefited from an unprecedented diversity in leisure opportunities, from the traditional ‘spit and sawdust’ public house to the new and lavish music hall that promised excitement and escapism at a modest price. In short, this was the era which witnessed the first of Britain’s mass ‘pleasure seekers’. Moreover, the combination of trade-union agitation, half-day holiday movements and government legislation in the 1860s and 1870s

in Leisure, citizenship and working-class men in Britain, 1850–1945
Lennart J. Lundqvist

2579Ch3 12/8/03 11:47 AM Page 54 3 Up or down with the ecology cycle? Strategies for temporally rational ecological governance Political terms and ecological cycles Next budget and next election; dominant time spans in politics From the early nineteenth century onwards, the dominant political view of time was one of continuous ‘progress’ with the state at the centre of change (Ekengren 1998:30). This linear conception of time is, however, just one possible view. Political time can also be seen as (series of) distinct events or as connected points that have

in Sweden and ecological governance
Keith Dowding

3 Rational choice and community power structures Keith Dowding, Patrick Dunleavy, Desmond King and Helen Margetts The community power debate had a focused interest in discovering who the major power holders were, and how far power was dispersed, in different communities (Hunter 1953; Dahl 1961; Bachrach and Baratz 1970; Polsby 1980; Domhoff 1983). Political theorists, rightly criticizing the simple-minded use of power, formulated a conception of power that moved ever further away from empirical demonstration. Consequently, urban scholars became less interested

in Power, luck and freedom
Gary Wilder

1998a; Amselle 1998a, b). I have organized my essay around the concept of ‘political rationality’, developed by Michel Foucault (Foucault 1982, 1984, 1988a, 1991, 1997a, 1998, 2003). 2 Although Foucault used it in multiple ways, I treat political rationality as an analytic term that refers to socially and historically specific logics of political practice; or, as Foucault put it, to ‘the

in Ordering Africa
Keith Shear

with these animals in African communities exemplified the disjunction between officials’ insistence that the South African Police (SAP) apotheosised rational scientific policing and the tawdrier reality of investigations that, as in the case of the murdered sub-headman, more closely approximated witch-finding ordeals. That canine trailing and identification possessed this intrusive character certainly

in Science and society in southern Africa
Relief, reconstruction and disputes over civilian suffering in the Anglo-Boer War, 1899–1902
Rebecca Gill

This chapter discusses the English visitors to South Africa, examining disputes over Emily Hobhouse's portrayal of abject Boer suffering and some of the ramifications of British efforts at relief and reconstruction at this tumultuous juncture in South African history. Emily Hobhouse, smarting at her exclusion from the government committee, also departed for South Africa, intent on resuming her work for the South African Women's and Children's Distress Fund. The Boer women and children internees of British concentration camps became the subject of considerable investigation and intervention. The three women affiliated to the Friends South African Relief Fund Committee began to report back their impressions of the camps. The years following the Peace of Vereeniging in May 1902 are known as the period of 'reconstruction' in South African history.

in Calculating compassion