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Abstract only
Series: Pocket Politics
Author: Edward Ashbee

This book explores how a candidate who broke with almost every single norm governing candidate behaviour, appeared to eschew the professionalised forms of campaigning, and who had been more or less disowned by Republican elites, prove victorious? The focus is on Trump and his campaign; the account does not go beyond the November election and its immediate aftermath. The book argues that the Trump campaign, like earlier populist insurgencies, can be explained in part by considering some defining features of US political culture and, in particular, attitudes towards government. It explains the right-wing populism that has been a recurrent and ingrained feature of the political process over a long period. The book discusses structural characteristics of the American state that appear to be of particular significance in shaping attitudes, as well as some other ideas and frames brought to the forefront by the Trump campaign during the course of 2015 and 2016. It also considers the shifts and swings amongst voters and suggests that these, alongside ideas about the state and the 'entrepreneurial' efforts of the campaign, form part of the explanation for Trump's eventual victory. The book assesses Trump's ascendancy as a function of, and reaction to, the strategies and discourses pursued in the years preceding 2016 by Republican Party elites. 'Trumpism' and European forms of populism are still in some ways weakly embedded but they may intensify the battles and processes of group competition between different constituencies.

Abstract only
Edward Ashbee

another line of explanation. It assesses Trump's ascendancy as a function of, and reaction to, the strategies and discourses pursued in the years preceding 2016 by Republican Party elites. Arguably, Trump's victory was the product of a chain reaction. In other words, it may be that Republican elites, through the discourses that they adopted in pursuit of given electoral logics , set off particular sets of reactive sequences that culminated, over time, in the emergence of the Trump campaign. The concept of reactive sequences is a form of path dependence. Nonetheless

in The Trump revolt
Abstract only
Edward Ashbee

entrepreneur. A second important factor lies in the composition of the different voting blocs. The financial crisis of 2008–2009 and the economic malaise that followed in its wake accelerated shifts, in particular long-running realignment processes, that allowed Trump to win narrow victories in some all-important ‘Rust Belt’ states. Other factors also contributed to Trump's victory. The election outcome can be seen as the end result of what might be termed reactive sequences set in motion by the processes of intense partisan polarisation that defined American politics over

in The Trump revolt
Siegfried Schieder

dependency process more and more irreversible. Although a process of self-reinforcing takes place, the path is still contingent (Sydow et al. 2009 : 691). At the third stage, HI focuses on further constriction and the idea of “reactive sequences” as an event chain in which events following a trigger are a reaction to prior events. It is the transition from stage II to stage III “which eventually leads the whole setting into a lock-in” (Sydow et al. 2009 : 694). Table 6.1 Path dependency as three-stage process

in Foreign policy as public policy?
Edward Ashbee

upon reactive sequences. See p. 113. 9 As David Marsh notes, many of these accounts overplay the coherence of the policy initiatives pursued during the Thatcher years. Policy disaggregation and the more detailed study of, for example, industrial relations policy, suggests that there was rather less coherence and consistency than accounts often suggest (Marsh, 1995: 603). 10 ‘Orders’ are, however, defined in different ways within the APD literature. See Chapter 2.

in The Right and the recession
Edward Ashbee

dependency is usually understood in terms of self-reinforcing sequences. Once established, perhaps because of a chance event or chance decision, paths are strengthened and bolstered and so the costs of abandoning the path and pursuing an alternative course become prohibitive. Nonetheless, as James Mahoney records, path dependency may be understood and represented in a very different way. There can be a chain of reactive sequences (rather than self-reinforcing sequences) as one action, event or decision lays the basis for, or triggers, a subsequent action, event or decision

in The Right and the recession
Theories and comparisons
Edward Ashbee

mind, but as the US Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld said rather memorably in the wake of the US invasion of Iraq, ‘stuff happens’. ‘Stuff’ does indeed happen. Chance events can set off chains of reactive sequences leading to outcomes far removed from the plans of policymakers, the desires of voters, or the intentions of those who designed particular institutional structures. Assessing theories Although theoretical frameworks should always be handled with care, they are still indispensable. It is

in US politics today (fourth edition)