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Jeremy Waldron

MCK1 1/10/2003 10:16 AM Page 13 1 Toleration and reasonableness Jeremy Waldron Traffic In the streets of a large city, people drive their cars for different reasons and to different destinations. Because the roads are crowded and because these different journeys cut across each other, with people going different ways through various intersections, there is a potential problem. If two vehicles pass through the same intersection at the same time, there may be a collision, and if there is, one or both of the drivers may fail to reach their destinations. (Indeed

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
Matt Matravers
and
Susan Mendus

MCK2 1/10/2003 10:19 AM Page 38 2 The reasonableness of pluralism Matt Matravers and Susan Mendus Introduction In ‘The Idea of an Overlapping Consensus’, John Rawls remarks that the aims of political philosophy depend upon the society it addresses, and that modern, democratic societies are characterised by ‘the fact of pluralism’: they are societies in which different people have different and conflicting comprehensive conceptions of the good, different and conflicting beliefs about the right way to live morally speaking.1 Moreover, and troublingly, these

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
Open Access (free)
Self-defence, honour and philosophical suicide
Elwin Hofman

the eighteenth century, the other two being memory and imagination. 4 In the dominant sensationalist psychology of Condillac, reasoning was a mathematical process, taking apart sensations and ideas, comparing them and rearranging them. 5 As such, scholars thought that reason was universal: given the same set of axioms and problems, all who used reason would reach the same conclusions. ‘The nature of reason must be the same in all’, Mary Wollstonecraft wrote. 6 The reasonable self was therefore not an individualised or inner-oriented self; it was a self in

in Trials of the self
Open Access (free)
Defences advanced in early modern sodomy trials in Geneva
William G. Naphy

Reasonable doubt 7 Reasonable doubt: defences advanced in early modern sodomy trials in Geneva William G. Naphy There are few charges that can be made against individuals more likely to damage their lives, reputations and futures, than sexual deviance.1 In the early modern period, the danger was even greater as the crime carried the death penalty. For those faced with the gravest of punishments, one might be inclined to suppose that there was only one sure defensive strategy: outright denial. However, before testing this hypothesis, some general information on

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700
Margaret Brazier

11 Why the reasonable man is not always right? Margaret Brazier Introduction The aspiring lawyer makes the acquaintance of the ‘reasonable man’ early in her or his student days.1 He often still remains (linguistically at least) stubbornly male. Winfield said this: ‘Despite the inveterate use of the masculine gender, there is no doubt that the personification includes the reasonable woman in the sense that the abstraction is not intended to embody peculiarly masculine values or patterns of behaviour’.2 The latest edition of Winfield and Jolowicz concedes that

in From reason to practice in bioethics
Malcolm Pemberton
and
Nicholas Rau

francs or a chicken curry). The necessity of such conditions, which are explained in books on decision theory, and indeed the whole principle that probability is subjective, limit the range of application of probability in social sciences such as economics. There is lively debate, and probably always will be, over how wide that range is, but reasonable economists agree that it is wide enough to make the study of

in Mathematics for Economists
Malcolm Pemberton
and
Nicholas Rau

guess that statements about first derivatives being zero translate into statements about gradients being zero-vectors. The two-variable analogue of the second derivative is the Hessian, which is a symmetric matrix; and it is reasonable to guess that statements about second derivatives being negative translate into statements about Hessians being negative definite, and statements about second derivatives being non

in Mathematics for Economists
Malcolm Pemberton
and
Nicholas Rau

( x ) − w N ( x ) . It is reasonable to assume that required labour input is an increasing function of output; in fact we make the slightly stronger assumption that

in Mathematics for Economists
Malcolm Pemberton
and
Nicholas Rau

q t , (26.5) where A and B are constants. Since the general solution of a second-order differential equation typically contains two constants of integration, and A and B can be any constants, it seems reasonable to conclude that ( 26.5 ) is the general

in Mathematics for Economists
Malcolm Pemberton
and
Nicholas Rau

can be found to any reasonable degree of accuracy by using a calculator. For example 3 1.41 = 4

in Mathematics for Economists