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Philip Norton

The case for having some – but not a majority of – members elected, either directly or indirectly, has been made by various bodies. A minority report to the Royal Commission on the Constitution in 1973 recommended that 150 members be added, drawn from the Scottish, Welsh, and Northern Irish assemblies that the commission proposed (Royal Commission on the Constitution 1973 : paras. 297–307). However, the most prominent advocacy in recent decades has emanated from the Royal Commission on the Reform of the House of Lords, set up by the Blair government in 1999

in Reform of the House of Lords
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Louise A. Jackson
Angela Bartie

8 Reform The explicit use of temporal and spatial regulation to transform the ‘anti-social’ child or young person into a ‘decent citizen’, accepting of ‘orderly community life’, was publicised through the 1946 dramadocumentary Children on Trial, which focused on the work of approved schools in England and Wales.1 Filmed on location at the Liverpool Farm School, Newton-le-Willows, it unusually made use of one of the school’s pupils, ‘Fred Watson’, as a central protagonist in the narrative. The school’s headmaster, John Vardy, also appeared as himself, and there

in Policing youth
Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

Constitutional Issues concerning reform women Constitutional reform 151 11 ➤ Review of constitutional reform before 1997 ➤ Analysis of the reasons behind the Labour reform plan of 1997 ➤ Descriptions of the main reforms ➤ Analysis of the reforms ➤ Prospects for future reforms CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM BEFORE 1997 Attitudes to reform The attitude of most governments towards constitutional reform during the twentieth century has been essentially conservative. This has, of course, partly been the result of the dominance of the Conservative party for most of that

in Understanding British and European political issues
Open Access (free)
Protecting borders, confirming statehood and transforming economies?
Jenny H. Peterson

4062 building a peace economy_2652Prelims 25/11/2013 15:06 Page 138 7 Customs reform: protecting borders, confirming statehood and transforming economies? of commodities across national borders is a primary feature of conflict-related trade, customs services, tasked with monitoring the movement of goods and people across borders, emerge as central institutions in the transformation of war economies. Not only do they deal directly with the problem of smuggling in their work at border crossings, but they are also involved in the investigation and tracking of

in Building a peace economy?
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The Popular Front experiment and the French empire
Martin Thomas

Until the 1980s few historians dissented from the view that the Socialistled Popular Front government experimented with colonial reform but failed to bring about fundamental change in the social and political life of the colonies. 1 The metropolitan authorities lacked the political will and the monetary means to effect significant

in The French empire between the wars
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The resilience of rentierism in Kuwait
Gertjan Hoetjes

sector (Crystal, 1995 : 7–37). Simultaneously, they have been the main beneficiaries of the willingness of the government to shore up the private sector after the 1976–77 stock market crash, the crash of an offshore market, known as the Suq al-Manakh, in 1982, and the financial crisis in 2008 (Nosova, 2016 : 74). Their privileged access to the rents has been a source of tension in Kuwaiti society and has fostered claims for redistribution among disadvantaged social groups (Beaugrand, 2019 : 59), complicating attempts towards fiscal reform following the drop in crude

in Oil and the political economy in the Middle East
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Political group portraiture and history painting
Henry Miller

4 Reforming pantheons: political group portraiture and history painting This chapter shows how group portrait paintings could recast political events as part of a celebrated national narrative. It contrasts, therefore, with the previous two chapters, which focused on how portraits could function as aides-memoires to political partisanship or identity. Group portrait paintings and derivative prints commemorated reforming triumphs through the aggregated representations of individual politicians. In doing so they presented a country of progress and enlightened

in Politics personified
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Mairi Cowan

-Reformation Scotland was not static. Lay devotional practice in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries changed in a number of ways, and for the most part these changes were not early Protestant or crypto-Protestant or even proto-Protestant, but Catholic; Scotland’s religious changes in the early sixteenth century were not part of the Protestant Reformation, but part of Catholic reform. They were brought

in Death, life, and religious change in Scottish towns, c.1350–1560
Alexandra Kelso

1 Parliament and parliamentary reform For some time, there has been a sense that something is wrong with politics. Declining electoral turnout across many liberal democracies in recent decades has prompted concerns that the public has become disaffected about, and disengaged from, political processes and political institutions. As Stoker (2006: 7) notes,‘there appears to be a considerable amount of discontent and disenchantment about the operation of democracy both in those countries that have practiced democracy for decades and those that are more recent

in Parliamentary reform at Westminster
A framework for analysis
Timothy Edmunds

The concept and policy of security sector reform is still relatively new. It was only in the late 1990s that the term emerged into common parlance. Even then it was under-theorised and ill-defined, and employed by a variety of different actors in a number of different ways. Despite a number of subsequent efforts to address these flaws, 1 the security sector reform

in Security sector reform in transforming societies