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Philip Norton

The case for having some – but not a majority of – members elected, either directly or indirectly, has been made by various bodies. A minority report to the Royal Commission on the Constitution in 1973 recommended that 150 members be added, drawn from the Scottish, Welsh, and Northern Irish assemblies that the commission proposed (Royal Commission on the Constitution 1973 : paras. 297–307). However, the most prominent advocacy in recent decades has emanated from the Royal Commission on the Reform of the House of Lords, set up by the Blair government in 1999

in Reform of the House of Lords
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Louise A. Jackson and Angela Bartie

8 Reform The explicit use of temporal and spatial regulation to transform the ‘anti-social’ child or young person into a ‘decent citizen’, accepting of ‘orderly community life’, was publicised through the 1946 dramadocumentary Children on Trial, which focused on the work of approved schools in England and Wales.1 Filmed on location at the Liverpool Farm School, Newton-le-Willows, it unusually made use of one of the school’s pupils, ‘Fred Watson’, as a central protagonist in the narrative. The school’s headmaster, John Vardy, also appeared as himself, and there

in Policing youth
Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

Constitutional Issues concerning reform women Constitutional reform 151 11 ➤ Review of constitutional reform before 1997 ➤ Analysis of the reasons behind the Labour reform plan of 1997 ➤ Descriptions of the main reforms ➤ Analysis of the reforms ➤ Prospects for future reforms CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM BEFORE 1997 Attitudes to reform The attitude of most governments towards constitutional reform during the twentieth century has been essentially conservative. This has, of course, partly been the result of the dominance of the Conservative party for most of that

in Understanding British and European political issues
Open Access (free)
Protecting borders, confirming statehood and transforming economies?
Jenny H. Peterson

4062 building a peace economy_2652Prelims 25/11/2013 15:06 Page 138 7 Customs reform: protecting borders, confirming statehood and transforming economies? of commodities across national borders is a primary feature of conflict-related trade, customs services, tasked with monitoring the movement of goods and people across borders, emerge as central institutions in the transformation of war economies. Not only do they deal directly with the problem of smuggling in their work at border crossings, but they are also involved in the investigation and tracking of

in Building a peace economy?
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The Popular Front experiment and the French empire
Martin Thomas

Until the 1980s few historians dissented from the view that the Socialistled Popular Front government experimented with colonial reform but failed to bring about fundamental change in the social and political life of the colonies. 1 The metropolitan authorities lacked the political will and the monetary means to effect significant

in The French empire between the wars
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The resilience of rentierism in Kuwait
Gertjan Hoetjes

sector (Crystal, 1995 : 7–37). Simultaneously, they have been the main beneficiaries of the willingness of the government to shore up the private sector after the 1976–77 stock market crash, the crash of an offshore market, known as the Suq al-Manakh, in 1982, and the financial crisis in 2008 (Nosova, 2016 : 74). Their privileged access to the rents has been a source of tension in Kuwaiti society and has fostered claims for redistribution among disadvantaged social groups (Beaugrand, 2019 : 59), complicating attempts towards fiscal reform following the drop in crude

in Oil and the political economy in the Middle East
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Political group portraiture and history painting
Henry Miller

4 Reforming pantheons: political group portraiture and history painting This chapter shows how group portrait paintings could recast political events as part of a celebrated national narrative. It contrasts, therefore, with the previous two chapters, which focused on how portraits could function as aides-memoires to political partisanship or identity. Group portrait paintings and derivative prints commemorated reforming triumphs through the aggregated representations of individual politicians. In doing so they presented a country of progress and enlightened

in Politics personified
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Mairi Cowan

-Reformation Scotland was not static. Lay devotional practice in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries changed in a number of ways, and for the most part these changes were not early Protestant or crypto-Protestant or even proto-Protestant, but Catholic; Scotland’s religious changes in the early sixteenth century were not part of the Protestant Reformation, but part of Catholic reform. They were brought

in Death, life, and religious change in Scottish towns, c.1350–1560

This book shows that neoliberalism is a complex phenomenon that is linked to public administration and management in no straightforward manner. The key problem for critical neoliberalism is how the state can and should govern in a situation of epistemological finitude without infringing on individual freedom. The book explores neoliberalism first in terms of a critical problematisation of government and then in terms of a constructivist problematisation. Over the last two or three decades, the public sectors of many liberal democracies have seen a tremendous surge of reforms, programmes and policies seeking to promote accountability, credibility and evidence. These include the institutionalisation of ever more sophisticated performance-measurement systems and the accreditation of institutions providing key public services. The ambition is to move from a rule-based to a result-based public sector. The book examines how performance auditing of state and other public institutions has become increasingly important in most OECD countries. It discusses the general shifts in the regulative ideals informing the making of the civil-servant persona in liberal democracies. The quest for accountability, credibility and the use of evidence in the public administration are examples of a more or less new form of power. This form of power is in turn informed by what the author calls 'constructivist neoliberalism'.

Author: Alexandra Kelso

The Labour Party government elected in 1997 pledged to reform the Westminster parliament by modernising the House of Commons and removing the hereditary peers from the House of Lords. Events have consequently demonstrated the deep controversy that accompanies such attempts at institutional reconfiguration, and have highlighted the shifting fault-lines in executive-legislative relations in the UK, as well as the deep complexities surrounding British constitutional politics. The story of parliamentary reform is about the nature of the British political system, about how the government seeks to expand its control over parliament, and about how parliament discharges its duty to scrutinise the executive and hold it to account. This book charts the course of Westminster reform since 1997, but does so by placing it in the context of parliamentary reform pursued in the past, and thus adopts a historical perspective that lends it analytical value. It examines parliamentary reform through the lens of institutional theory, in order not only to describe reform but also to interpret and explain it. The book also draws on extensive interviews conducted with MPs and peers involved in the reform of parliament since 1997, thus offering an insight into how these political actors perceived the reform process in which they played a part. It provides a comprehensive analysis of the trajectory and outcome of the reform of parliament, along with an original interpretation of that reform and its implications.