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Professional politicians and regional institutions in Catalonia and Scotland
Series: Devolution
Author: Klaus Stolz

Focusing on professional politicians, this book investigates the interrelationship between political career patterns and political institutions in two of the most widely discussed cases of regionalism: Catalonia and Scotland. It deals with two different yet closely related sets of questions. Firstly, how do professional politicians pursue their careers in the regional context? And secondly, how do they shape and reshape the political institutions in which they pursue these careers? The book is based on extensive empirical research including a comprehensive data set on the careers of Catalan and Scottish parliamentarians, systematic surveys of regional representatives as well as in-depth interviews with a wide range of politicians and experts in both regions. Exploring the effects of political professionalisation on regional democracy, it goes beyond traditional studies of regionalism and decentralization, while its focus on the regional career arena introduces a territorial dimension to the study of political careers.

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Traces of a regional political class in Catalonia and Scotland
Klaus Stolz

the electorate turned out to ratify it in a referendum. Compared to the rather ambivalent consequences of political professionalisation for the development of regional democracy in Catalonia, its balance with regard to the establishment and expansion of regional autonomy seems much more clear-cut. No doubt, the emergence of a professional self-interest of Catalan politicians predominantly tied to the Catalan level (by their career orientation as well as by their career base) has strengthened Catalonia’s position in its constant battle with the Spanish state over

in Towards a regional political class?
Klaus Stolz

political vocation, drawing their salary and pension from serving in the most prestigious positions of Catalan politics. Furthermore, in regionalising the Spanish state and establishing Catalan regional democracy, they, together with their colleagues in this profession, have been shaping an institutional structure that provides many more Catalans with the opportunity to combine their strong feelings for Catalonia with a professional political career. In May 1999, nineteen years after the inauguration of the Catalan Parliament, another long-awaited regional parliament was

in Towards a regional political class?
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Retrieving a ‘Global’ American Philosopher
John Narayan

cosmopolitanism has come under criticism for privileging the roles of elites and a form of spatial globalism that revolves around global institutions and organizations without examining how global democracy is linked to local, national and regional democracy (Smith and Brassett 2008; Calhoun 2010). At the same time, modern cosmopolitanism is also accused of a failure to tackle the global economic inequalities that are created and perpetuated by neo-liberal globalization (Hardt and Negri 2004) and of universalizing Eurocentric ideas of citizenship, sovereignty, human rights and

in John Dewey
Setting the stage for a regional political class
Klaus Stolz

in each case. In the following I will thus concentrate on (1) those particular features that are necessary to understand the context of the empirical analysis contained in the following two chapters, and on (2) those general developments that are most likely to affect the future of regional democracy and the modern state in the two cases (as will be discussed in chapter 5). The two main sections of this chapter discuss the two cases using a common five-part structure. In each case, the basic conditions under which the two regions have been integrated into their

in Towards a regional political class?
Edwin Bacon, Bettina Renz and Julian Cooper

-candidate presidential elections. In Russia’s regions, legislatures are elected. The major change which President Putin has made in regard to regional democracy is that since the beginning of 2005, the heads of regional executives (governors, republican presidents, and the mayors of Russia’s two ‘federal cities’, St Petersburg and Moscow) are no longer elected but are nominated by the President and approved by regional legislatures. This is a less purely democratic procedure than direct election, but in comparative terms is not undemocratic per se. Direct election of regional heads

in Securitising Russia
Andrekos Varnava and Casey Raeside

Research Centre, 2000. 23 Andrekos Varnava and Christalla Yakinthou, ‘Cyprus: Political Modernity and the Structures of Democracy in a Divided Island’, in John Loughlin, Frank Hendriks, and Anders Lidstrom (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Local and Regional Democracy in Europe , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, pp. 455–477. 24

in Comic empires
Andrekos Varnava

, ‘The State of Cypriot Minorities’. 84 Andrekos Varnava and Christalla Yakinthou, ‘Cyprus: Political Modernity and Structures of Democracy in a Divided Island’, in John Loughlin, Frank Hendriks and Anders Lidström (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Local and Regional Democracy in Europe , Oxford University

in Serving the empire in the Great War
James Mitchell

House when it was debating English or Welsh domestic matters. The ‘in-andout’ principle ought to be attractive to Conservatives since it would ensure them a semi-permanent majority on most social issues at Westminster – no small prize. Labour remains formally committed to devolution and may be expected to consider a plan along these lines in the future. (Drucker and Brown 1980: 127) The idea was later abandoned by Brown. In January 1995, Brown argued that a Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly ‘go hand in hand with the offer of greater regional democracy throughout

in Devolution in the UK
Regional elections and political parties
Cameron Ross

federalism viable?’, PostSoviet Affairs, 12:3 (1996), 195–217; Peter C. Ordeshook and Olga Shevtsova, ‘Federalism and constitutional design’, Journal of Democracy (January, 1997), 27–36; M. Makfol, S. Markov and A. Ryabov (eds), Formirovanie PartiinoPoliticheskoi Sistemy v Rossii (Moscow, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: 1998), G. V. Golosov, Partiinye Sistemy Rossii i Stran Vostochnoi Evropy (Moscow, Ves Mir: 1999). 25 See, C. Ross, ‘Political parties and regional democracy in Russia’, in C. Ross (ed.), Regional Politics in Russia (Manchester: Manchester

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia