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Author: John Walter

Early modern England was marked by profound changes in economy, society, politics and religion. It is widely believed that the poverty and discontent which these changes often caused resulted in major rebellion and frequent 'riots'. This book argues for the inherently political nature of popular protest through a series of studies of acts of collective protest, up to and including the English Revolution. Authority was always the first historian of popular protest. Explaining the complex relationship between the poor and their governors, the book overviews popular attitudes to the law and the proper exercise of authority in early modern England. A detailed reconstruction of events centring on grain riots in the Essex port of Maldon in the crisis of 1629 is then presented. Urbanisation, regional specialisation and market integration were the larger changes against which disorder was directed between 1585 and 1649. The book discusses the 'four Ps', population growth, price rise, poverty and protest, explaining their connection with population explosion to poverty and protest. The major European revolts of the so-called 'Oxfordshire rising' are then analysed. Popular politics might deploy 'weapons of the weak' in a form of everyday politics that was less dramatic but more continuous than 'riot'. On the very eve of the Civil War, large crowds, with underemployed clothworkers, attacked and plundered the houses of local Catholics and proto-royalists among the nobility and gentry. In a culture that proscribed protest and prescribed obedience, public transcripts could be used to legitimise a popular political agency.

John Walter

Chapter 3 . The geography of food riots, 1585–16491 I U rbanisation, regional specialisation and market integration were the larger changes against which disorder was directed in this period. Dearth, occasioned by the recurrent crisis of harvest failure and trade depression, exposed the weak points and tensions that these changes had created. The government’s continued public endorsement of traditional economic suppositions and popular condemnation of changes in marketing practice were sources of legitimation for the crowd’s actions. Since the central

in Crowds and popular politics in early modern England
Rory M. Miller and Robert G. Greenhill

nineteenth century such as cotton, specialised wools, guano and nitrate. 74 Later the port also became the major British importer of rubber. These interests were reflected in the intensifying regional specialisation of its merchant houses on the west coast and in the Amazon basin. However, the dynamism in the commodity trades of late nineteenth-century Latin America was shifting

in The empire in one city?
Peter Maw

. Transport, he argues, promoted regional specialisation, the emergence of new industries and increases in the scale of production; these three developments were significant in their own right but it was their role in Canals and the Industrial Revolution 237 bringing out the fourth key aspect of the Industrial Revolution – a dramatic increase in the rate of technological innovation – that highlights transport’s crucial role. After dismissing a range of potential causes of technological change, including foreign trade, domestic demand and secure property rights, Szostak

in Transport and the industrial city
Abstract only
Shifting the economic development agenda
Jon Stobart

and Nottinghamshire and earthenware manufacture in the Potteries. Recognising the importance of the region is not to dethrone the industrial revolution, therefore, but rather serves to highlight the truly revolutionary nature of economic change during this period. Regional specialisations were well established by the early eighteenth century and were all the more remarkable because such ‘marked geographical concentration of whole sectors of production had never been experienced before’.15 They were also enduring and did much to shape the subsequent economic

in The first industrial region
Abstract only
The integration of local, regional, national and international economies
Jon Stobart

In short, the spatial and functional integration of local and regional specialisations which characterised early industrialisation did much to structure the geography and pace of subsequent development. Towns were central to both specialisation and integration, and were instrumental in the structure and dynamic of the regional economy, not so much as individual places, but rather as nodes on networks of interaction. Wrigley has long argued that they were not parasites on a productive countryside as simplistic readings of proto-industrialisation theory suggest,11

in The first industrial region
Abstract only
Peter Maw

. Improvements in transport in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries reinforced regional specialisation by reducing the costs incurred when industrial and agricultural regions traded with each other. Turnpikes had already developed a national system of transport by the late eighteenth century; canals and railways later developed their own extensive networks, which in 270 Transport and the industrial city their different ways strengthened connections between specialist manufacturing and farming regions. Most studies of canal trade adopt a regional approach. These accounts

in Transport and the industrial city
The resurgence of Route 128 in Massachusetts
Michael H. Best

and partner for the complementary capabilities. Regions with open-system networks have low barriers to entry for new specialist firms. This process drives down the time for technological change and the process of new sub-sector formation. Regional specialisation and innovation processes The upper box in figure 9.2 signifies the extent of capability specialisation and technological diversity within a regional population of industrial enterprises. Specialisation has regional and inter-regional dimensions. Greater specialisation internally is a measure of the

in Market relations and the competitive process
Alistair Cole

prior to 1940 was one of fragmentation and regional specialisation. A complex mosaic of political factions existed during the Third Republic. On the centre and right of the political 11 12 The French party system spectrum, party labels either did not exist, or signified distinct political realities in different parts of the country. More centralised, coherent and disciplined parties gradually began to emerge after 1945 – in the form of the Christian democratic Mouvement Républicain Populaire (MRP) and de Gaulle’s ephemeral Rassemblement du Peuple Français (RPF

in The French party system
Abstract only
The region and the community
John Beckett

. . . . Industrialisation accentuated the differences between regions . . . . Macroeconomic indicators fail to pick up this regional specialisation and dynamic which was unique to the period and revolutionary in its impact.’53 Once we start to approach the Industrial Revolution in terms of local and regional history we begin to see the process in a very different light. The majority of migratory moves in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries took place over short distances, and this is important in explaining how the industrial workforce came together. Economic opportunities were

in Writing local history