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This text aims to fill a gap in the field of Middle Eastern political studies by combining international relations theory with concrete case studies. It begins with an overview of the rules and features of the Middle East regional system—the arena in which the local states, including Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Israel and the Arab states of Syria, Jordan and Iraq, operate. The book goes on to analyse foreign-policy-making in key states, illustrating how systemic determinants constrain this policy-making, and how these constraints are dealt with in distinctive ways depending on the particular domestic features of the individual states. Finally, it goes on to look at the outcomes of state policies by examining several major conflicts including the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Gulf War, and the system of regional alignment. The study assesses the impact of international penetration in the region, including the historic reasons behind the formation of the regional state system. It also analyses the continued role of external great powers, such as the United States and the former Soviet Union, and explains the process by which the region has become incorporated into the global capitalist market.

A case of persistent semi-rentierism
Amr Adly

population-scarce countries, which was instrumentally used to create regional alignments by rewarding and punishing oil-poor/labour-abundant countries (Fargues et al. , 2015 ). Egypt's receipt of remittances from the GCC is a case in point that is discussed in more detail in the following subsections. Intergovernmental aid and credit: a typical example would be the post-1990 reconstruction of Lebanon after fifteen years of civil war (Corm, 1998 ; Daher, 2016 ). Another example is the readmittance of Egypt into the Arab League within the same

in Oil and the political economy in the Middle East
John P. Willerton
Geoffrey Cockerham

presence. By the end of the 1990s, the various forces driving individual states’ secu195 2504Chap10 7/4/03 12:57 pm Page 196 Institutions of security governance rity calculations had led to discernible regional alignments among selected CIS members. Surveying the constellation of FSU states, with their varying degrees of commitment and involvement in the CIS, we find that essentially two groupings of states emerged. The first, a seemingly ‘pro-Moscow’ grouping, and including Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, encompassed states which had

in Limiting institutions?
Abstract only
National and international forces
Tamson Pietsch

employment as lecturers and professors at university colleges in Rangoon, Ceylon and Singapore. 51 The territories of British rule around the Indian Ocean thus offered Indian scholars opportunities for employment and advancement, creating new regional alignments of intellectual and institutional power that ran parallel to those of the British academic world

in Empire of scholars
Bernadette Connaughton

the Regional Authorities established in 1994. The waste regional alignment for waste was based on political boundaries non-aligned to the Regional Authorities and/or other regional structures. From 1996 to 1999 regionalisation was encouraged but: ‘No one sat down and gave instructions on whom to include or exclude in regional groupings. The Act itself gave the Minister power to take decisions on this and issue instructions but this was not done. The Waste Management Planning Regulations in 1997 contained what the content of a plan should be

in The implementation of environmental policy in Ireland