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Doing the right thing?
Authors: David Hine and Gillian Peele

Integrity issues have become an important item on the British political agenda since the 1990s when ‘sleaze’ prompted John Major to set up the Committee on Standards in Public Life. The book analyses the range of ethical problems which confront the political system and the efforts to address them. It addresses the tightening of standards in response to misconduct in Parliament, in central and local government and in the devolved systems. It also addresses perennial ethical questions such as lobbying and party funding which continue to trouble the United Kingdom as they do other major democracies. The chief purpose of the book is to understand the regulatory dilemmas which face policy-makers as they struggle to produce new machinery and codes to tackle the risk of misconduct. Thus we examine, for example, the choice between self-regulation and independent regulation, decisions about the amount of transparency required of office-holders, and how to achieve proportionality in the balance between perceived problems and regulatory burdens. We also attempt to assess the impact of more than two decades of ethical engineering on the office holders and the public.

International comparisons and patterns
Matt Qvortrup

9 Regulation of direct democracy: international comparisons and patterns Referendums – and especially initiatives – are rare in most Western democracies. They have only become centrepieces of the political systems in Switzerland and – since the 1970 – Italy. The legislative initiative is practically unknown outside America, though as we have seen above, it has begun to play a role in Germany, New Zealand and a couple of former communist countries. The Swiss can merely propose constitutional amendments, but these are often defeated (the voters have endorsed a

in Direct democracy
Campaign spending
Matt Qvortrup

very concept of objective truth is fading out of the world” 3 . The aim of this chapter is to determine if there are ways in which regulation can (and has) helped rescue the “objective truth”. Referendums should be about deliberation, about open debate before a vote is taken. In short, to quote the legal scholar Ron Levy, “widespread citizen involvement is therefore only a

in Democracy on demand
Christopher T. Marsden

. Sabine Verheyen MEP 1 This chapter first considers the 2013 Proposal and Trilogue in 2014/15, then the 2015 Regulation’s net neutrality aspects, before finally looking at the details of BEREC’s implementation of its Guidelines. European law upheld transparency on a mandatory basis, and minimum QoS on a voluntary basis, under provisions in the 2009 electronic communications

in Network neutrality
Dishonoured women and abandoned children in Italy, 1300–1800
Author: Brian Pullan

This book seeks to contribute to Italian social history and to deepen understanding of Catholic charity and social policy in past times. It focuses on two groups of disreputable (or at least tarnished) women and children and on the arrangements made to discipline and care for them, both by public authorities and by voluntary organisations and would-be benefactors. The first group consisted of prostitutes, concubines, single mothers, estranged wives, and girls in moral danger. The second was composed of children, many born outside wedlock, who were abandoned by their blood parents, out of shame or poverty or both. A synoptic survey, the book examines the complications involved in the tolerance and regulation of activities considered bad but impossible to suppress. Could licensed prostitution be used as a lesser evil to counter supposedly greater abuses, such as sodomy, adultery or concubinage, and to protect ‘decent’ women? Could child abandonment be tamed and used against the greater evils of infanticide or abortion, to preserve the honour of women who had borne illegitimate children and to save fragile lives? And what should be done to protect and rescue the victims of sexual exploitation and children separated from their natural mothers?

Christoph Knill and Duncan Liefferink

2 Patterns of regulation Following the historical overview of the first chapter, this chapter employs a more analytical perspective on the main characteristics of the EU environmental policy field. The discussion is organized by a decreasing level of abstraction, i.e. starting with general principles, via regulatory approaches and instruments, going down to an overview of concrete policies and measures. First, the main principles of making environmental policy in the multi-level system of the EU are presented, such as the precautionary principle, the principle

in Environmental politics in the European Union
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Environmental managerialism and golf’s conspicuous exemption
Brad Millington and Brian Wilson

, however, one excepted use stood out: pesticides could still be deployed on the province’s golf courses . In a curious wrinkle, a law banning pesticides earned support from the pesticide-reliant golf industry. To fully understand the Cosmetic Pesticides Ban Act and golf’s positioning within it, it is necessary to turn first to Canada’s evolving system of environmental (and especially pesticide) regulation. This, as we shall see, is an exercise in accounting for nuance: environmental regulation has in

in The greening of golf
Women’s work in the Civil Service and the London County Council, 1900–55
Author: Helen Glew

Collectively, the Civil Service and the London County Council (LCC) employed tens of thousands of women in Britain in the early twentieth century. As public employers, these institutions remained influential for each other and for private employers more widely as a benchmark for the conditions of women’s white-collar work. This book examines three key aspects of women’s public service employment: inequality of pay, the marriage bar and inequality of opportunity. In so doing, it delineates the levels of regulation and rhetoric surrounding women’s employment and the extent to which notions about femininity and womanhood shaped employment policies and, ultimately, women’s experiences in the workplace. Drawing on a wide range of archival sources, including policy documents, trade union records, women’s movement campaign literature and employees’ personal testimony, this is the first book-length study of women’s public service employment in the first half of the twentieth century. It is also a new lens through which to examine the women’s movement in this period and a contribution to the debate about the effect of the First World War on women’s employment. Scholars and students with interests in gender, British social and cultural history and labour history will find this an invaluable text.

Wayward apprentices and other ‘evil disposed persons’ at London’s fairs
Anne Wohlcke

3 Regulation and resistance: Wayward apprentices and other ‘evil disposed persons’ at London’s fairs1 M iddlesex and Westminster justices and London Aldermen spent a good deal of the late seventeenth through mid-eighteenth centuries attempting to pass legislation they believed would conform London to their idea of an orderly and productive commercial centre. Seasonal fairs that disrupted commercial order in the metropolis concerned London officials working to establish productivity and commerce in the city. Urban legislation and reform discourse sought to

in The ‘perpetual fair’
E.A. Jones

anchoritic guidance and regulation that featured in the first half of this volume. These late medieval developments – of official examination, approval and licensing, supervision and regulation – together bring an inevitable paradox: as hermits gained new levels of regularity and structure for their way of life, with the respectability and security that they brought, so they simultaneously lost some of the

in Hermits and anchorites in England, 1200–1550