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Author: Paul Blackledge

The recent emergence of global anti-capitalist and anti-war movements have created a space within which Marxism can flourish in a way as it has not been able to for a generation. This book shows that by disassociating Marxism from the legacy of Stalinism, Marxist historiography need not retreat before the criticisms from theorists and historians. It also shows that, once rid of this incubus, Marx's theory of history can be shown to be sophisticated, powerful and vibrant. The book argues that Marxism offers a unique basis to carry out a historical research, one that differentiates it from the twin failures of the traditional empiricist and the post-modernist approaches to historiography. It outlines Marx and Engels' theory of history and some of their attempts to actualise that approach in their historical studies. The book also offers a critical survey of debates on the application of Marx's concepts of 'mode of production' and 'relations of production' in an attempt to periodise history. Marxist debates on the perennial issue of structure and agency are considered in the book. Finally, the book discusses competing Marxist attempts to periodise the contemporary post-modern conjuncture, paying attention to the suggestion that the post-modern world is one that is characterised by the defeat of the socialist alternative to capitalism.

Paul Blackledge

out of its context, this essay can suggest a particularly reductionist model of history. According to the Preface; In the social production of their existence, men inevitably enter into definite relations, which are independent of their will, namely relations of production appropriate to a given stage in the development of their material forces of production. The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundations on which arises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of

in Reflections on the Marxist theory of history
Conflict and crisis, 1918–45
Ben Silverstein

White Australia policy, to the almost exclusive employment of white labour. But it simultaneously called for the Commonwealth government to produce and support an economy that depended upon large-scale pastoralism, an industry dependent on black labour. At the same time, a material contradiction that characterised the relations of production in the pastoral industry was itself tending to crisis. White pastoralists were dependent both on black labour and on a rate of exploitation that eroded the capacity of workers and their communities to survive. And, as workers

in Governing natives
Abstract only
Sam Rohdie

was as if the thing, the reality, and the belief they involved, were suddenly emptied to the advantage of a questioning of the image, of the ‘relations of production’ of the image. The Godardian image is no longer (as if it ever was) transparent to things; it obscures and severely simplifies them in order to signify nothing but itself.)18 18  Pascal Bonitzer, Le Champ aveugle, essais sur le réalisme au cinéma (Paris: Cahiers au cinéma, 1999), pp. 92–3.

in Film modernism
Mark Harvey

of production of capitalists and the knowledge means of production of workers. And this goes to the core of Marx’s ‘relations of production’. Class is not the only division. The ‘nothing’ but one’s labour to sell is not nothing. The divisions between those with more and those with less knowledge, those with specialised work-functional knowledge and generalised knowledge, those with individually distinctive skills and those with generic skills, are formed outside the commodity circuit. Moreover, these societal divisions of knowledge vary from country to country, and

in Inequality and Democratic Egalitarianism
Mark Harvey

.g. Piketty). Marx founded his Labour Theory of Value analysis on the relations of production between labour and capital. Following the critique of that theory in the previous chapter, here both Marx’s analysis and the dominant contemporary orthodoxies are counterposed to an integrated analysis combining relations of production with relations of exchange, in order to comprehend the generation of profit and its appropriation by owners of capital. It is an analysis of relations of production and exchange, and, to anticipate the conclusion, it aims to establish a systemic

in Inequality and Democratic Egalitarianism
Paul Blackledge

some of those earlier transitions. In his Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, Marx commented that with the socialist solution to the contradictions between capitalist forces and relations of production, ‘the prehistory of human society . . . closes’. Earlier in that text he had sketched humanity’s prehistory as including, ‘in broad outline, the Asiatic, ancient, feudal and modern bourgeois modes of production’.2 As this schema was but one of many outlined by Marx and Engels throughout their lifetimes, Chris 96 Marxist theory of history

in Reflections on the Marxist theory of history
Abstract only
Labour, class, environments and anthropology
Penny McCall Howard

capitalist relations of production, they can also be violent. Anthropologists should examine this possibility and be aware that this violence may be obscured or misrecognised by its victims and those in power, or by structural aspects of systems. 5. An understanding of labour and the environment at sea must consider the forces and pressures on that labour. The nature of work at sea means that notwithstanding the development of electronic navigation and communication 21 212 212 Conclusion systems, a crew isolated on a boat is radically, immediately, responsible for all

in Environment, labour and capitalism at sea
Abstract only
Anandi Ramamurthy

governments in maintaining or developing specific colonial ideologies. Black people were never intended as consumers of these products; their images were therefore symbolic. Unlike the majority of advertising, which hides relations of labour, images of black people – perceived as natural labourers – reveal company interests in particular relations of production. In pre-1920 imagery

in Imperial persuaders
Jason Toynbee

consists in practices of going to work, of buying and selling shares, of developing new technologies and so on. What then distinguishes it as the base is the fact that such activities 1) have a material end, and 2) are organised in a specifically capitalist way, involving the exploitation of labour to extract surplus value (including ‘profit’) via the production of commodities for exchange. Together these forces and relations of production constrain the kind of culture, laws and state which exist in a capitalist society. One other point. It is wrong to identify base and

in Working for the clampdown