Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

the same time, despite agency growth and extensive efforts to professionalise relief work, there was little commensurate increase in effectiveness ( Fiori et al ., 2016 ). Growing risk aversion and recourse to remote management, moreover, created problems of distancing and loss of familiarity ( Healy and Tiller, 2014 ). Distracted by debt-fuelled uncertainty, rather than an indignant citizenry, Western publics now present as so many disillusioned, ironic spectators ( Chouliaraki, 2013 ). Diplomatic influence has also declined ( Mair, 2013

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Humanity and relief in war, Britain 1870–1914
Author: Rebecca Gill

The history of relief work is in its infancy. This book draws on new archival research to reveal the priorities of nineteenth-century relief workers, and the legacies of their preoccupations for relief work today. It first explores the inauguration of the British National Society for Aid to the Sick and Wounded in War (NAS) at the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870 under the figurehead of Loyd Lindsay. Then, the book sees the revival of the NAS for work in the Balkans during a period of nationalist violence and Ottoman counter-insurgency which culminated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. It also follows the staff of relief committees as they dispensed aid in British colonial wars. The book examines the critiques of British policy in the Boer War (1899-1902) emanating from intersecting circles of Quakers, New Liberals and ethicists, and considers these groups' offer of aid to Boer civilians. Further, the book concentrates on the methodologies of relief for Boer inmates of British concentration camps in South Africa and on the implications of this relief for its intended recipients during and after the war. It concentrates on aid to British soldiers. The book closes by tracing continuities in vocational practices and dispositions to emerging areas of concern in the post-war period, in particular child welfare, and briefly considers their implication for relief work today.

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Humanity and relief in war and peace
Rebecca Gill

’s political participation. 15 In retrospect, she also made a similar claim for her work in the South African War, something she had not pressed at the time. These examples of voluntary work at home and in the colonies provided a model of women’s active citizenship now that the vote had been secured. Indeed, as this book has repeatedly shown, relief work was a prominent arena for promoting national

in Calculating compassion
Mediation, relief work and political activism
Brian Heffernan

9 Preserving the peace: mediation, relief work and political activism The previous chapters have looked at explicitly ‘partisan’ clerical responses to political violence: the ways in which priests either condemned or supported the IRA or the crown forces. Only a minority of priests are on record as having expressed such a partisan response. While giving due regard to the limitations of the sources used, it is not an improbable supposition that a majority of the clergy simply tried to avoid becoming involved at all.1 This was an unremarkable course of action in

in Freedom and the Fifth Commandment
Barbra Mann Wall

. They provided care, sustenance, help for orphans and protection of those suffering from the violence. Several authors have described the politics and humanitarianism of organisations that flew nightly shipments of food and medicines to a starving population in the southeast region during the war.2 As these accounts are told, the relief work was essentially a European and American enterprise. Yet examination of healthcare activities at the local level reveals both Irish Catholic missionaries and Nigerians themselves working collaboratively to care for the ill and

in Colonial caring
Silvia Salvatici

and women to join the missions spread over other continents corresponded to the emergence of a transnational network of philanthropic activity which developed in close interaction with the relief work carried out at home. This interaction is clear both if we look at the type of initiatives (and the ways in which they were carried out) ‘in the field’ and if we take into consideration the origins and set-up of the associations that were being founded to support the missionaries’ work. In the archaeology of international humanitarianism we therefore also have to

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989
Angela K. Smith

, including that of Mabel St Clair Stobart, continued its work into the 1920s. It was picking up on a well-established tradition of relief work in the East, organised and carried out by British women. For example, the Quaker-run Friends’ Mission in Constantinople had been in operation since the 1880s and, under the direction of Ann Mary Burgess, had built an entire self-help/relief industry, enabling Armenian women to manufacture and sell their ‘ethnic’ arts and crafts across Britain. Burgess’ network was reliant on women philanthropists as well as the Friends of Armenia

in British women of the Eastern Front
Catholic priests and political violence in Ireland, 1919-21
Author: Brian Heffernan

The guerrilla war waged between the IRA and the crown forces from 1919 to 1921 was a pivotal episode in the modern history of Ireland. This book addresses the War of Independence from a new perspective by focusing on the attitude of a powerful social elite: the Catholic clergy. The close relationship between Irish nationalism and Catholicism was put to the test when a pugnacious new republicanism emerged after the 1916 Easter rising. When the IRA and the crown forces became involved in a guerrilla war from 1919 onwards, priests had to define their position anew. Using a wealth of source material, much of it new, this book assesses the clergy’s response to political violence. It describes how the image of shared victimhood at the hands of the British helped to contain tensions between the clergy and the republican movement, and shows how the links between Catholicism and Irish nationalism were sustained.

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Calculating compassion in war
Rebecca Gill

able to date their origins back no further than the 1850s. Critics did not spare their jibes at this parvenu ‘claptrap and mutual decoration crowd’. 2 Yet, for all that they were beset by mockery, pecuniary difficulties and rivalry, the Order of St John’s attempt to revive a tradition of battlefield chivalry is an important strand in the history of modern relief work in Britain. It is with unravelling

in Calculating compassion
Author: Zoë Thomas

Women Art Workers constitutes the first comprehensive history of the network of women who worked at the heart of the English Arts and Crafts movement from the 1870s to the 1930s. Challenging the long-standing assumption that the Arts and Crafts simply revolved around celebrated male designers like William Morris, this book instead offers a new social and cultural account of the movement, which simultaneously reveals the breadth of the imprint of women art workers upon the making of modern society. Thomas provides unprecedented insight into how women – working in fields such as woodwork, textiles, sculpture, painting, and metalwork – navigated new authoritative roles as ‘art workers’ by asserting expertise across a range of interconnected cultures so often considered in isolation: from the artistic to the professional, intellectual, entrepreneurial, and domestic. Through examination of newly discovered institutional archives and private papers, and a wide range of unstudied advertisements, letters, manuals, photographs, and calling cards, Women Art Workers elucidates the critical importance of the spaces around which women conceptualised alternative creative and professional lifestyles: guild halls, exhibitions, homes, studios, workshops, and the cityscape. Shattering the traditional periodisation of the movement as ‘Victorian’, this research reveals that the early twentieth century was a critical juncture at which women art workers became ever more confident in promoting their own vision of the Arts and Crafts. Shaped by their precarious gendered positions, they opened up the movement to a wider range of social backgrounds and interests, and redirected the movement’s radical potential into contemporary women-centred causes.