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Livelihoods, livestock and veterinary health in North India, 1790–1920
Author: Saurabh Mishra

The question of cattle has been ignored not just by scholars working on agrarian conditions, but also by historians of medicine in India. This book is the first full-length monograph that examines the history of colonial medicine in India from the perspective of veterinary health. It not only fills this gap, but also provides fresh perspectives and insights that might challenge existing arguments. The book explores a range of themes such as famines, urbanisation, middle-class attitudes, caste formations etc. One of the most striking features of veterinary administration was its preoccupation with the health of horses and military animals until the end of the nineteenth century. Examining veterinary records, it becomes evident that colonial officials were much less imbued with the 'white man's burden' when it came to preserving indigenous cattle stock. The book shows that the question of finances could influence areas such as laboratory research, as is evident in the operations of the Imperial Bacteriological Laboratory. In its account on famines and cattle mortality, it highlights the meagreness and ineffectiveness of relief measures. The book then examines the question of caste identities, especially that of the Chamars (popularly known as leatherworkers). It also explores the process whereby stereotypes regarding caste groups were formed, inspecting how they came to be crystallised over time. A central concern of the book is to study the nature, priorities, and guiding principles of the colonial state. Finally, the book adopts a long-term perspective, choosing to study a rather long chronological period.

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Saurabh Mishra

ineffectiveness of relief measures. This chapter also brings to light indigenous responses that were adopted in order to compensate for the inadequacy or inappropriateness of colonial policies. In doing so it underlines the fact that many of the peasant responses were not ‘irrational’, as many colonial officials perceived them to be, but had been arrived at after much weighing of all possible

in Beastly encounters of the Raj
A case study in psychiatry and colonial rule
Waltraud Ernst

context of the maintenance of colonial order and authority. Inside the asylum Despite its relative insignificance in quantitative terms, psychiatric provision for Europeans in India was an integral part of European social relief measures. The colonial society’s values were in turn reflected in the way in which ‘lunacy’ policy was implemented. European civilisation, its

in Imperial medicine and indigenous societies
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The relief of distress
Virginia Crossman

economic development as the only solution to the chronic poverty of the west. The following provides a chronological analysis of the relief measures adopted during the period from 1879 to 1898. Debates over the necessity for and provision of emergency relief focused attention not only on the operation of the poor laws, but also on the way Ireland was governed. Central to these debates were questions of rights and responsibilities. What was the nature of government’s responsibility, local and central, for the relief of poverty and distress? How far did an individual

in Politics, pauperism and power in late nineteenth-century Ireland
Conciliation and division
Christine Kinealy

distress in Ireland. A series of relief measures introduced by Peel’s government had ensured that nobody died in the first year of food shortages, but suffering was extensive. A number of people in Ireland believed that the impact of the shortages would be lessened if the Irish ports were ‘closed’ as a means of limiting the vast amount of food, particularly corn, that was continuing to leave Ireland.7 Such a demand was concurrently being made by the Lord Lieutenant, Daniel O’Connell (who was a member of the Mansion House [Relief] Committee) and the leaders of Young

in Repeal and revolution
Deborah Wilson

the national schools board would provide two-thirds of the costs of school buildings, equipment and teachers’ salaries from public funds.79 The piecemeal poor-relief measures of the government during the Great Famine and the national schools initiative were both unsuccessful in their respective aims. However, they were significant as the first large-scale state intervention in Ireland. Until the introduction of the Irish poor law in 1838, the government response to the problem of the poor in Ireland was to subsidise public works and encourage local health services

in Women, marriage and property in wealthy landed families in Ireland, 1750–1850
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T. M. Devine

were censured by government officials for the inadequacy of their relief measures. However, while some landowners took early initiatives, others were much more laggard and only became active after they were threatened with government sanctions. Most expenditure came from the ducal houses of Sutherland and Argyll and the ‘new’ landed class, who were in a better position to offer relief than the old families with their burden of multiple trusts and historic indebtedness. But it was not only the offer of meal at reduced prices or in return for work which THE GREAT

in Clanship to crofters’ war
Sonja Tiernan

chairman of four local relief committees, and through the private relief measures he initiated around his properties.’18 The fact that the Lissadell estate remained solvent after the Great Famine, while many other properties went into bankruptcy and were Introducing the Gore-Booth family 7 sold off in the Encumbered Estates Court, leads some historians to believe that Sir Robert acted in his own interests. In fact Sir Robert relied heavily on rental income and the sale of lands in Manchester and Salford to finance his philanthropic deeds. It is evident that Sir Robert

in Eva Gore-Booth
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Repeal in retreat
Christine Kinealy

increasing number of women and children. At the same time, many merchants were making large profits, helped by the high demand for foodstuffs throughout Europe and a buoyant export market.1 The various relief measures, despite being inadequate in scope and provision, placed a heavy fiscal burden on Irish property owners. Consequently, many landlords were beginning to feel financially squeezed as a consequence of two consecutive years of reduced rentals and increased taxation. Not only did the public works fail in their primary purpose of saving lives, but they also proved

in Repeal and revolution
From free movement of migrants to containment in concentration camps
Paul Weindling

restrictive and designed to contain potential migrants, who were faced with immigration quotas and visas. What happened was a vast restructuring of international relief measures which changed from sanitary screening of migrants to sealing them in behind the borders of the new interwar state system based on national self-determination. The shift from imperial power blocs to the post-Versailles system of states based on national self-determination meant the imposition of additional borders and migration quotas, which came with severe emigration and immigration restrictions

in Medicalising borders