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Britain's Chief Rabbis were attempting to respond to the new religious climate, and deployed a variety of tactics to achieve their aims. This book presents a radical new interpretation of Britain's Chief Rabbis from Nathan Adler to Immanuel Jakobovits. It examines the theologies of the Chief Rabbis and seeks to reveal and explain their impact on the religious life of Anglo-Jewry. The book begins with the study of Nathan Marcus Adler, Chief Rabbi from 1845, and it then explores how in 1880 Hermann Adler became Delegate Chief Rabbi on his father's semi-retirement to Brighton. In the pre-modern era, and for a while after, rabbis saw themselves and were seen as the heirs of the rabbinic tradition, whose role first and foremost was to rule on matters of religious law. The book argues that the Chief Rabbis' response to modernity should be viewed in the context of Jewish religious responses that emerged following the Enlightenment and Emancipation. It sketches out a possible typology of those responses, so that Chief Rabbis can be placed in that context. Chief Rabbis were members of the acknowledgement school, which contained a number of different theological currents: romantic, scientific, aesthetic and nostalgic. Hermann Adler was the Chief Rabbi during his time, and his religious policies were to a great extent motivated by his religious ideas. Joseph Herman Hertz's theology placed him in the traditional group within the acknowledgement school, although he was influenced by its scientific, romantic and aesthetic branches.

Benjamin J. Elton

movements other than his own. Finally I look at see how Zionism fitted into Hertz’s theological outlook. Having established Hertz’s religious attitudes, I trace their origins, identify Hertz’s religious and intellectual inspirations, and then contrast Hertz’s views with those of Jewish religious leaders with different attitudes and see how Hertz’s approach can be seen as a reaction to those attitudes and as interventions in an ongoing debate within Judaism. As with Adler, we examine Hertz’s theology for two reasons: first, because it is worthy of study in its own right, but

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970
Patrick Collinson

intention to compare Stow’s nostalgic perceptions with reality. This essay has the more limited aim of scrutinising and nuancing what might be called Originally published in Imagining Early Modern London: Perceptions and portrayals of the City from Stow to Strype, edited by J. Merritt (Cambridge, 2001). Reproduced by permission of Cambridge University Press. 287 This England Stow’s selective nostalgia, relating it to a religious position and religious attitudes which were evidently in a process of evolution throughout the forty years of his antiquarian activity. To this

in This England
Marie Mulvey-Roberts

Chapter 1 revisits the orthodox position that the tradition of Gothic writing is anti-Catholic. Even though Horace Walpole, author of The Castle of Otranto, was a Member of Parliament, belonging to the Church of England, his attitudes towards Catholicism were ambiguous. This is significant for a neglected reading of his novel, relating to the Henrician Reformation, which brought about the secession of Britain from Rome. The Catholic Church, when it came to be regarded as the enemy, was perceived as an institutional dangerous body, in which the Other was subjected to intense and relentless persecution, involving torture and execution. The novel of Inquisition will be put to the question over whether its ostensible opposition to Catholicism masked different agendas much nearer home. The bleeding body, as a site of the sacred and profane, opens up a conduit for reassessing religious attitudes of various Protestant Gothic novelists. In Matthew Lewis’s The Monk, the character of the Bleeding Nun will be discussed as a parody of the mystical stigmatic within Catholic tradition. Her blood line of demonic stigmatics will be traced from Lewis and his imitators up to Bram Stoker’s Dracula

in Dangerous bodies
A conceptual history 1200–1900

This collection explores how concepts of intellectual or learning disability evolved from a range of influences, gradually developing from earlier and decidedly distinct concepts, including ‘idiocy’ and ‘folly’, which were themselves generated by very specific social and intellectual environments. With essays extending across legal, educational, literary, religious, philosophical, and psychiatric histories, this collection maintains a rigorous distinction between historical and contemporary concepts in demonstrating how intellectual disability and related notions were products of the prevailing social, cultural, and intellectual environments in which they took form, and themselves performed important functions within these environments. Focusing on British and European material from the middle ages to the late nineteenth century, this collection asks ‘How and why did these concepts form?’ ‘How did they connect with one another?’ and ‘What historical circumstances contributed to building these connections?’ While the emphasis is on conceptual history or a history of ideas, these essays also address the consequences of these defining forces for the people who found themselves enclosed by the shifting definitional field.

T. M. Devine

itinerant preachers and teachers. Not surprisingly most of the region was carried for 106 CLANSHIP TO CROFTERS’ WAR the Free Church when the great division eventually came. In the immediate aftermath of the Disruption the scarcity of Gaelic-speaking ministers meant that the Church had to rely on the lay religious elite, the Men and the itinerant teachers, to ensure the continued loyalty of the people. This extraordinary transformation in religious attitude and commitment necessarily begs the question of the extent to which the spiritual revolution was ultimately a

in Clanship to crofters’ war
Steven Earnshaw

the housemaid. For him, each day can be a new start after behaving badly. The religious attitude of others is also often portrayed as hypocritical, but it is possible that, in a way, Hearne sets a standard for belief and behaviour which is higher, more rigorous and honest than that of other characters in the novel. Although Judith Hearne is not regarded as a ‘religious person’, this only means that she does not get involved in church affairs and enterprises, not that she doesn’t believe. Her aunt’s advice has been ‘Prayer and a rigorous attention to one’s religious

in The Existential drinker
Abstract only
Andrew Mansfield

Fénelon’s approval of James Stuart. Riding on the back of the immense popularity of Télémaque, Ramsay used his role as editor to portray Fénelon as a purveyor of divine right monarchy and religious toleration. Both of these claims were erroneous, but had a lasting effect on the legacy of the Archbishop. Conversely, Fénelon was rather vociferous in his denunciation of religious schism and was particularly determined to eradicate Jansenism. Although religious attitudes reinforced Fénelon’s convictions regarding moral character and virtue as a political pedagogue and

in Ideas of monarchical reform
Marco Barducci

Discourse , Ascham explained that in the present condition men killed each other rather ‘for civil than for ecclesiastick causes’. ‘Every difference in religion makes not another religion’. Espousing the religious attitudes of the Independents, as the emphasis on inward faith rather than on ‘conformity to visible ceremonies’, on the limitation of human understanding of God, and therefore on the difficulty

in Order and conflict
Denis Renevey

the importance given by God to the ‘nomen Iesu’, which therefore requires veneration from all of God’s creation. One can trace on the one hand a continuum between the Jesus prayer and the invocation of ‘Jesus’ by Bartimaeus, and find on the other multiple manifestations of the influence of the reference to the power of the Name of Jesus. So, even if the simple invocation of ‘Jesus’ and the more complex reflection on the power of the ‘Name of Jesus’ initially derive from different religious attitudes, with different origins and specific idiosyncrasies, the slow

in Aspects of knowledge