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Abbey, court and community 1525–1640
Author: J. F. Merritt

Early modern Westminster is familiar as the location of the Royal Court at Whitehall, parliament, the law courts and the emerging West End, yet it has never been studied in its own right. This book reveals the often problematic relations between the diverse groups of people who constituted local society - the Court, the aristocracy, the Abbey, the middling sort and the poor - and the competing visions of Westminster's identity which their presence engendered. There were four parishes in Westminster at the turn of the sixteenth century. The parishes of St Martin's and St Margaret's have been identified as two of only eighteen English parishes for which continuous and detailed parish records survive for the turbulent period 1535-1570. Differences in social organization, administrative structure and corporate life in the two parishes also provide a study in contrasts. These crucial differences partly shaped forms of lay piety in each parish as well as their very different responses to the religious reformations of Henry VIII and his children. The death of Henry VIII heralded important changes in Westminster. Most strikingly, however, this was a period of major religious change, in stark contrast to the piecemeal changes of Henry's reign. The dissolution of Westminster's abbey gave rise to special problems. The book examines individuals who wielded the most influence at the local government; as well as the social identity of these parish elites. Finally, it explores the interaction of religion with the social and political developments observed in the post-Reformation town.

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June Cooper

Society for Promoting English Protestant Schools in Ireland was founded in February 1733.38 The Charter Schools were intended for the education of poor Roman Catholics and ‘the meanest Protestants’ in ‘useful skills and habits of industry’ with the aim of both social and religious reformation.39 However, the Commissioners of Education presented troubling accounts of the schools in their 1825 report which called an eventual halt to once large parliamentary grants.40 Houses of Industry provided for the aged, the sick, lunatics and orphans41 and in 1817 there were

in The Protestant Orphan Society and its social significance in Ireland, 1828–1940
Guns, ships and printing presses
Torbjørn L. Knutsen

During the early decades of the sixteenth century, several Atlantic states developed new ship designs, new navigation techniques and new weapons systems. These innovations increased their capabilities, their power and their wealth. This chapter discusses these innovations and shows how they paved the way for the ‘great discoveries’ and for Western conquests in Africa, Asia and the Americas. The chapter also shows how the invention of movable type contributed to a religious Reformation – which provoked religious quarrels that in turn undermined the authority of religion. The chapter discusses several authors – among them Italian diplomat Alberico Gentili and Spanish lawyer Francisco de Vitoria – who stimulated international theorizing. It singles out French philosopher Jean Bodin for special attention. Bodin foreshadowed the modern notion of the state and explored the concept of ‘sovereignty’ in ways which exerted a formative influence on subsequent scholarship on the state and on interstate relations.

in A history of International Relations theory (third edition)
Marco Barducci

engaged to do in 1649, along with the influential and former Presbyterian MP Rous, was to negotiate the consensus of his former Presbyterian allies by presenting the new government as committed to the achievement of religious reformation. What kind of religious reformation was still the object of discussion both within and outside the Parliament, especially over the issue of the liberty to be granted to

in Order and conflict
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Marco Barducci

unconditionally to restore Charles I to the throne, while the Independents claimed to leave to Parliament those sovereign prerogatives that it had seized during the Civil War before proceeding with the disbandment of the army. From a religious standpoint, however, the differences between the two groupings were more difficult to trace. In the 1640s, Presbyterianism was a movement of religious reformation which

in Order and conflict
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De facto theorist or ‘commonwealthsman’?
Marco Barducci

republican government by using a de facto argument was John Dury. Consistent with the politics of reconciliation implemented by moderate leaders of government, Dury also addressed Presbyterian dissenters requiring them to annul the Covenant and submit to the new government (and take the Engagement) as a means of furthering religious reformation. In the early stages of the Civil War, Dury took an

in Order and conflict
Marco Barducci

to rule equitably. These attempts were intended to convince an audience struggling with troubled consciences, and which was seriously concerned about the future of religious reformation. This audience was arguably more sensible of the ethical commitment of Grotius, than of the cunning counsel of Machiavelli. So, in order to distance himself from the Machiavellian implications of reason of state, especially those

in Order and conflict
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A survey of the imperial territory and the beginnings of political empire
Robert M. Bliss

in 1629 organized the Massachusetts Bay Company aimed not only to transfer England to America but also to continue a religious reformation which at that time seemed stymied in England. To think of the American wilderness as a sanctuary or as a ‘Citty upon a hill’ was, on its face, an extraordinary idea, not least because it was shared by such different folk as John Winthrop, Baron Baltimore, and the

in Revolution and empire
Rosemary O’Day

‘official’ Reformation was not the real reformation of the Church: rather, it opened the way for a much deeper religious reformation. While acknowledging Henry VIII’s importance, Heylyn yet maintained that the King had remained a Catholic until his death: The work first hinted by a Prince of an undaunted spirit, the master of as great a courage as the world had any; and to say truth, the work required it. He durst not else have grappled with that mighty adversary, who, claiming to be successor to St Peter in the see of Rome, and Vicar-general to Christ over all the church

in The Debate on the English Reformation
The Reformation heritage
Rosemary O’Day

declared because she would govern herself, and not be ruled by loathsome priests. Henry rid himself of Anne Boleyn because she was guilty. Lord Burghley was not simply a canny statesman, but also a defender of the faith. This is, of course, to caricature J.A. Froude’s monumental work. The modern student may find strikingly familiar Froude’s interpretation of the complex relationship between the official and the popular religious reformation. He wrote of the force of tradition, of habit as an inhibitor of change: Healthy people live and think more by habit than by reason

in The Debate on the English Reformation