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The Protestant Orphan Society became a social bridge that linked together throughout the Church of Ireland the humble poor and the wealthy and the great. This book examines the work of the Protestant Orphan Society in Dublin (DPOS) against the background of over a century of political, religious and social upheaval from Catholic emancipation, the Great Famine, social reforms to Independence. It first identifies the founders and supporters of the DPOS and their motivation for doing so. It asks why the Church of Ireland invested in the children of the church at this time. The book then analyses the Society's development, the grounds for support of private versus public poor relief for Protestant widows and children and stresses the crucial role that women played in the Societies' work. It examines the child welfare system implemented by the DPOS, and the extent to which its policies were forward thinking and child and family centred. The opposing views of the extensive social service carried out by PO Societies and the meaning of the charity for the Church of Ireland laity, particularly women, are explored. The book further examines applicant profiles, widows' reduced circumstances and health, attitudes to children's health, and bereavement and the attendant emotional effects. Using individual case histories the chapter examines applicant case histories which include Sean O'Casey's sister.

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Martin Luther was caught in a violent storm and, fearing for his life, exclaimed the oath, ‘Help me, Saint Anna, and I shall become a monk’. 1 A fortnight later, Luther entered the Augustinian monastery at Erfurt, thus beginning in earnest the theological life which would shape so much of the Reformation. If it is too much to say that the storm engendered religious upheaval, it must surely be

in Shakespeare’s storms
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term frequently applied indiscriminately but carrying life or death consequences. Still others did indeed continue to practice their religion covertly, living a clandestine existence in fear. The fruits of this complex history of population movement and religious upheaval are crystallised for us in the Sephardic diasporas around the Atlantic seaboard where Jews, crypto-Jews and conversos alike formed a complex pattern of trading networks in the New World. The brothers Emile and Isaac Pereire were among the descendants of these Spanish conversos and Portuguese

in Emile and Isaac Pereire
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George Peele’s David and Bethsabe

. Religious and theatrical contexts The two fundamental changes which occurred between 1538 and 1590 and which had the biggest impact on biblical drama were the religious upheaval marked by the movement between Catholicism and Protestantism under the Tudors, and the proliferation of playing spaces in London, between the 1560s and the 1580s. A brief discussion of the religious and theatrical contexts for each of these plays will provide a more complex picture of the religious drama written, printed and performed during the intervening years between

in The genres of Renaissance tragedy
Elisabeth Bronfen and Beate Neumeier

the struggle between Catholicism and Protestantism. England in his time is in the middle of religious upheavals and power shifts in the wake of the Reformation. Anne Williams has pointed out that the history of Tudor England and Henry VIII would make a perfect Gothic story, as far as family relations and religious turmoil are concerned. ‘Both Catholics and Protestants executed

in Gothic Renaissance
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Henry Chettle’s The Tragedy of Hoffman

surely major societal changes in the late sixteenth century – when the plays were being composed – have as much claim to influencing the revenge genre as religious upheaval in the first part of the century. For example, the conversation preceding Ophelia's funeral sees two gravediggers debating the relative merits of her legal status, rather than her position in the afterlife: ‘It must be se offendendo … Argal, she drowned herself wittingly’ (V.i.9–13). 9 This leads to the assertion that ‘[i]f this had not been a gentlewoman she should have been buried out o

in The genres of Renaissance tragedy

made it permissible, for a brief period, for women from all walks of life, not solely the gentry and aristocracy, to vocalise their opinions freely on the religious upheavals, domestic tribulations and regime changes they had to endure Notes 1 All biblical citations are from The

in Biblical women in early modern literary culture 1550–1700

advertisements for proprietary drugs.84 The first type of almanac mirrored the religious upheavals of the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In 1555, Anthony Askham, who was a firm supporter of Mary Tudor, praised her attempts to revive Catholicism, claiming that ‘the Lord god of blysse . . . hath sent a gouvernesse to make a reformation, erylyng our late heresyes and amending all our mysse’.85 In the later Elizabethan and early Stuart period both Catholics and Puritans became targets of religious propaganda. Members of the Catholic faith, who were seen as agents of

in English almanacs, astrology and popular medicine: 1550–1700

shared the view that a person’s conduct during sickness, and especially in their last moments, could determine whether they were bound for salvation or damnation.53 They argue that this was an optimistic way of offering salvation to all in an age of religious upheaval.54 The message of resurrection for the chosen was strongly reinforced by the presence of ministers or priests at the bedsdes of the sick and dying.55 In general, the ‘good death’ took place in the presence of family members who each had a role to perform, and the sick person was likewise expected to

in Physick and the family
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proving inadequate as scholars discover the contingencies of political support in the Reformation; 14 uncover elements of overlap and influence between these two movements; 15 and reject fixed, essentialist definitions of the term ‘radical’ itself, and instead understand its use as contextual and relative. 16 Here, then, the term ‘radical’ will signify political ideas, cultural tendencies, and/or religious modes that contemporaries understood to undermine the status quo. This flexible definition recognises the moving goalposts inherent in the religious upheavals of

in Lollards in the English Reformation