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Mairi Cowan

religious dissent was actually very rare. Later medieval dissent Scottish records from the twelfth to the late fourteenth centuries are conspicuously silent about heretical groups, though it is difficult to know how to interpret this silence. One possibility is that Scotland simply did not experience organized religious dissent during this time. Many features connected with organized

in Death, life, and religious change in Scottish towns, c.1350–1560
Legacies and departures
Editor: Janet Clare

This volume challenges a traditional period divide of 1660, exploring continuities with the decades of civil war, the Republic and Restoration and shedding new light on religious, political and cultural conditions before and after the restoration of church and monarchy. The volume marks a significant development in transdisciplinary studies, including, as it does, chapters on political theory, religion, poetry, pamphlets, theatre, opera, portraiture, scientific experiment and philosophy. Chapters show how unresolved issues at national and local level, residual republicanism and religious dissent, were evident in many areas of Restoration life, and recorded in plots against the regime, memoirs, diaries, historical writing, pamphlets and poems. An active promotion of forgetting, the erasing of memories of the Republic and the reconstruction of the old order did not mend the political, religious and cultural divisions that had opened up during the civil wars. In examining such diverse genres as women’s writing, the prayer book, prophetic writings, the publications of the Royal Society, histories of the civil wars by Clarendon and Hobbes, the poetry and prose of Milton and Marvell, plays and opera, court portraiture and political cartoons the volume substantiates its central claim that the Restoration was conditioned by continuity and adaptation of linguistic and artistic discourses.

In the feminist Pantheon John Stuart Mill and William Thompson have always featured high, somewhat screening the constellation of progressive literati, men of thought, letters and action who also vindicated and promoted women’s rights. It is the purpose of this book that these men’s voices can be heard. Male voices on women’s rights brings together a unique collection of original nineteenth-century texts, mixing seminal, little-known, or forgotten writings ranging from 1809 to 1913. It comes as a timely complement to the rare scholarly studies undertaken in recent years on men’s roles in the history of feminism, and will be welcomed by anyone interested in its intellectual sources.

The documents, drawn from diaries, essays, parliamentary speeches, pamphlets, newspaper articles, or sermons, testify to the part played by the radical tradition, liberal political culture, religious dissent, and economic criticism in the development of women’s politics in nineteenth–century Britain. They also give some useful insight in the (often emotional) tensions, contradictions, or ambiguities of positions provoked by shifting patterns of masculinity and re-definitions of femininity, and will help revise common assumptions and misconceptions regarding male attitudes to sex equality. This text collection provides more than just source reading: Its substantial historical introduction adds value to the interpretative framework preceding all selected extracts, thus rendered immediately exploitable by students and teachers alike.

Author: Mairi Cowan

This book examines lay religious culture in Scottish towns between the Black Death and the Protestant Reformation. Part I looks at what the living did to influence the dead and at how the dead were believed to influence the living in turn. It shows that the living and the dead shared a reciprocal relationship of obligation and assistance, and that the bonds between the two groups were especially strong when they involved blood or guild kinship. Part II considers the overlapping communities in Scottish towns where people could personalize religious expression in a meaningful social context. Part III focuses on the period between 1350 and 1560 as one of disruption and development. It assesses weaknesses in the Scottish ecclesiastical structure and instances of religious dissent, and then it considers the Scottish Church’s response to these challenges. Two main arguments run through the book. The first is that most laypeople in Scottish towns continued to participate in orthodox Catholic practices right through to the mid-sixteenth century. The second major argument is that Catholic religious practices in Scottish towns underwent a significant shift between 1350 and 1560. This shift, which is most easily perceived when Scotland is considered within the broader European transition from the medieval to the early modern period, brought with it a kind of pre-Reformation reformation in religious practice.

Lionel Laborie

Chapter 3 explores the French Prophets’ system of beliefs against the backdrop of contemporary denominations in an attempt to understand their spiritual appeal to an English audience. It explores England’s long millenarian tradition before the Camisards found refuge in London. Their emphasis on religious experience (spirit possession, prophecy, gift of tongues, miracles, dreams and visions) over doctrinal boundaries enabled the French Prophets, and enthusiasts more generally, to appeal to all denominations alike. Their ecumenical ambition to reconcile Judaeo-Christian denominations into a Universal Church has been misunderstood as a form of sectarianism. This chapter argues on the contrary, that enthusiasm, as a religious experience, was ecumenical and irenic, that is the opposite of religious dissent.

in Enlightening enthusiasm
The captivity narrative of William Okeley (1675)
Catherine Vigier

dissenters had placed their faith in the idea that religious toleration would be defended by the King through the Declaration of Indulgence (1672). Such hopes of royal support faded as the King withdrew the Declaration in March 1673 under pressure from Parliament. Meanwhile, members of the Anglican clergy had been busy writing polemics denouncing Calvinism and other forms of religious dissent. The future Bishop of Oxford, Samuel Parker, had published A Discourse of Ecclesiastical Politie (1669) (henceforth Discourse),12 followed by A Defence and Continuation of the

in Radical voices, radical ways
Political prints of the Popish Plot and Exclusion Crisis – the revision of a republican mode
Christina M. Carlson

’Estrange and College’s prints were published and which, by contrast, is almost totally lacking in College’s work. What the Tories understood differently from the Whigs was the nature of political opinion. Given the strong links between religious radicalism (Puritanism) and republicanism throughout the 1620s through to the 1660s, it was natural for a more ‘conservative’ opinion to emerge in the Restoration, with fears that religious dissent would give way to more political opposition, with the possibility of renewing the strife of recent decades. The Whig effort to advocate

in From Republic to Restoration
Abstract only
Christopher Tyerman

more than five centuries after the First Crusade (1095–99), armies under the banners of the cross and sustained by special offers of forgiveness of sins associated with that first campaign to win Jerusalem, reached all corners of Europe and the littoral of the Near East, touching some seminal political events of the age: the reordering of the Near East and the frontiers between Islamic and Christian rulers in the Mediterranean; the German and Christian conquest of the southern and eastern Baltic; the repression of religious dissent in Christendom; the assertion of

in The Debate on the Crusades
Brian Jackson

also marked out by a perception of his lower social status as a shopkeeper and a tradesman. At another point in the text, where he seeks to draw a link between religious dissent and civil disobedience among the lower orders, Fitzsimon refers to Lanye as ‘the cutler’s apprentice’.7 This characterisation of Layne reflects the prevailing social attitudes of the merchant elite and the landed gentry of the Pale. Layne was in fact reasonably well connected. His uncle, Francis was a wealthy landowner in Laois, an associate of Francis Cosby and Peter Carew, former victualler

in Irish Catholic identities
Lionel Laborie

Mark Goldie and Alexandra Walsham have shown, religious intolerance was in fact largely presented as a Christian duty to coerce dissenters into conformity based on the writings of Enthusiasm, blasphemy and toleration 167 St Augustine. In a kingdom where the monarch was also the head of the Established Church, many further argued that religious dissent and sedition went hand in hand. Quakers were among the prime targets of Anglican persecution; it is estimated that some 15,000 Friends were fined or imprisoned between 1660 and 1685 and that 500 of them died in

in Enlightening enthusiasm