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The iconography of Elizabeth I

The visual images of Queen Elizabeth I displayed in contemporary portraits and perpetuated and developed in more recent media, such as film and television, make her one of the most familiar and popular of all British monarchs. This book is a collection of essays that examine the diversity of the queen's extensive iconographical repertoire, focusing on both visual and textual representations of Elizabeth, in portraiture, literature, contemporary sermons, speeches and alchemical treatises. It falls into three sections. The first part looks at the diverse range of religious and quasi-religious images that were employed by and about Elizabeth, such as the Prophetesse Deborah, the suggestive parallel with Joan of Arc, and finally Lady Alchymia, the female deity in alchemical treatises. When Queen Elizabeth I, the first female Protestant monarch, was enthroned in 1558, male poets, artists, theologians, and statesmen struggled to represent this new phenomenon. The second part turns to one of the major enterprises of the Elizabethan era, the attempt to colonise the New World, during which the eastern seaboard of America was renamed Virginia in celebration of the Virgin Queen. The last part focuses on the ways in which the classical world was plundered for modes of imaging and figuring the queen. Finally, the book summarises the enormously wide range of Elizabeth's iconographical repertoire of its appeal, and provides a fitting end to a book which ranges so widely across the allegorical personae of the queen.

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Annaliese Connolly and Lisa Hopkins

chapters look at the diverse range of religious and quasi-religious images that were employed by and about Elizabeth, such as Deborah, the Jewish female leader from the Old Testament and one of the many Old Testament figures to whom Elizabeth was compared, the unlikely but suggestive parallel with Joan of Arc, and finally Lady Alchymia, the female deity in alchemical treatises. The Biblical figure of Deborah

in Goddesses and Queens
Author: Laura Varnam

The church as sacred space places the reader at the heart of medieval religious life, standing inside the church with the medieval laity in order to ask what the church meant to them and why. It examines the church as a building, idea, and community, and explores the ways in which the sanctity of the church was crucial to its place at the centre of lay devotion and parish life. At a time when the parish church was facing competition for lay attention, and dissenting movements such as Lollardy were challenging the relevance of the material church, the book examines what was at stake in discussions of sanctity and its manifestations. Exploring a range of Middle English literature alongside liturgy, architecture, and material culture, the book explores the ways in which the sanctity of the church was constructed and maintained for the edification of the laity. Drawing on a wide range of contemporary theoretical approaches, the book offers a reading of the church as continually produced and negotiated by the rituals, performances, and practices of its lay communities, who were constantly being asked to attend to its material form, visual decorations, and significance. The meaning of the church was a dominant question in late-medieval religious culture and this book provides an invaluable context for students and academics working on lay religious experience and canonical Middle English texts.

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Emer Nolan

church. The tabernacle stood empty and open. ‘God was absent’, she reflected, ‘In occlusion. Down in the underworld. But tomorrow He would rise again and irradiate the creation with His love. I tried to imagine it.’4 The Church encourages the faithful to dwell on Christ’s passion during Easter week. All around her, O’Faolain saw familiar religious images of comfort and suffering: ‘Our Lady of Perpetual Succour opened her embracing arms in love; Christ was contorted on His cross in pain.’5 But thinking about her own loneliness and that of so many of the people who

in Five Irish women
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Philip M. Taylor

) and historical legitimacy (which provided the mind with less realistic but more credible views of the past). The art of rhetoric was perfected and, in cities such as papal Rome, vast building schemes were launched in praise of man’s achievement through God, especially after the Peace of Lodi in 1454 which brought a semblance of tranquillity to Italy for nearly half a century. Drawing on the traditions of devotional religious images, shrines, and relics, civic authorities used the bodies of the saints and the heroes of antiquity for their own purposes (Michelangelo

in Munitions of the Mind
Rebecca Whiteley

objects of prayer, providing comfort, protection and guidance. Within pre-Reformation theology, religious images could work like relics, channelling the divine power of the thing they represented in order to cleanse the soul and protect the body of the viewer. Both relics and images offered such protection through looking, but also through touching, kissing and even eating. 25 Kathryn Rudy has shown specifically how Holy Face images could enact divine cures, through respectful defacement by the viewer

in Religion and life cycles in early modern England
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misericords have a religious image (most commonly an angel) and only 1.5 per cent show a scriptural scene. 2 Much more common are images of plants, animals (including monsters), and people. Most carvings depict the ordinary low everyday world, as opposed to the high sacred one found (for example) on altar carvings, but there are many that can be described as fantastic and satirical or simply as funny. Misericords are at the margins of church decoration and, like the images that appear in the margins of medieval manuscripts

in Manchester Cathedral
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Oliver P. Rafferty

and benediction could exert such a powerful and moving impact on modern Irish writing. For his part Bernard O’Donoghue in Chapter 20 illustrates the fact that the idea of the transcendent, the relationship between the world of time and eternity, between the numinous and the immanent is a central 16 Irish Catholic identities theme in the poetry of many contemporary Irish writers. Drawing on traditions as old as the medieval mystic Julian of Norwich, but reflected in the work of modern poets such as T. S. Eliot, religious images and ideas are all pervasive in the

in Irish Catholic identities
Vittorio Bufacchi

forgotten, especially by the families of the people who died because of their incompetence. These include Brazil’s far-right president Jair Bolsonaro, who continues to downplay the pandemic, notwithstanding the deaths of 162,000 people, which makes Brazil the third worst country in the world for deaths and infections. Mexico’s president Andrés Manuel López Obrador openly ignored the advice of public health officials, shaking hands with his supporters, kissing their children, and joking that he was relying on good-luck charms – religious images, four-leaf clovers, and a $2

in Everything must change
Philip M. Taylor

eternal life. In the east, however, church propaganda was causing offence to the Roman emperor at Constantinople, Leo III (717-802), who Munitions_03_Chap4-10 53 4/11/03, 8:26 Propaganda in the Middle Ages 54 issued a decree against religious images. This precipitated the Iconoclastic (‘image-breaking’) Schism with the papacy. This clash irrevocably sundered the bond between the Church in Rome and Byzantium. It may seem ironic that the old Roman Empire, which had done so much to develop the use of imagery, both pagan and Christian, was finally broken in two by a

in Munitions of the Mind