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Globalising kosher and halal markets
Authors: John Lever and Johan Fischer

Over the last two decades, global demand for kosher products has been growing steadily, and many non-religious consumers view kosher as a healthy food option: in the US over 60 per cent of kosher food consumption is linked to non-religious values associated with health and food quality. This book explores the emergence and expansion of global kosher and halal markets with a particular focus on the UK and Denmark. While Kosher is a Hebrew term meaning 'fit' or 'proper', halal is an Arabic word that literally means 'permissible' or 'lawful'. The book discusses the manufacture and production of kosher and halal meat (both red meat and poultry) with specific reference to audits/inspections, legislation, networking, product innovation and certification. It draws on contemporary empirical material to explore kosher and halal comparatively at different levels of the social scale, such as individual consumption, the marketplace, religious organisations and the state. It compares the major markets for kosher/halal in the UK with those in Denmark, where kosher/halal are important to smaller groups of religious consumers. Denmark plays an important role in biotechnology that is compatible with what we call kosher/halal transnational governmentality. The book explores how Jewish and Muslim consumers in the UK and Denmark understand and practice kosher consumption in their everyday lives. It also explores how 'compound practice' links eating with issues such as health and spirituality, for example, and with the influence of secularism and ritual.

John Anderson

If the focus of the previous chapter was essentially negative, exploring ways in which religious organisations may have helped to undermine authoritarian regimes, the emphasis gradually shifts here to the issue of ‘what happens next’. We shall examine in particular the role of religious leaders, who face the problem of combining prophetic denunciation of injustice with pragmatic concerns about keeping their often divided flock united and maintaining lines of communication with the political order. We then turn to some of the ‘structural

in Christianity and democratisation
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Lindsey Earner-Byrne

found it necessary to negotiate both the limited official relief services and the network of informal welfare services available in order to secure the welfare of the family. This book is concerned with the myriad of motives, conflicts and priorities behind the social and medical services offered to Dublin mothers by voluntary and religious organisations and by local and central governments. The envisaged role and reality of Irish motherhood not only exposed inherent contradictions in the societal response to tradition and modernity, but also called into question the

in Mother and child
Anna Bocking-Welch

-Church Aid and Refugee Service in 1948 before finally settling on its current name in 1964. 8 It was not the only religious organisation working in this field. The Catholic Agency for Overseas Development (CAFOD) was founded in 1962, for example, and the Evangelical Alliance Relief Fund (Tearfund) in 1968. Collectively, these organisations raised the profile of religious humanitarianism in Britain. But they also had distinctive approaches that appealed to different constituents within the broader religious community. Like the BCC, Christian Aid was predominantly an

in British civic society at the end of empire
Sarah Glynn

by Respect to Muslim identity and to encouraging political and community action through religious organisations. Their strength and their ability to stem the growth of fascism were due to an emphasis on class politics that cut across ethnic and religious difference.91 The Communist Party built on years of grassroots work to develop not only electoral success, but also a solid base of politically conscious supporters. Later, the compromises with capitalism that characterised post-war Communist policy disillusioned many supporters long before they had to face

in Class, ethnicity and religion in the Bengali East End
Matt Cole

This chapter discusses the religious belief of Richard Wainwright. It explains that Wainwright was raised as a Christian and his faith was a more significant element in his life, his politics and the politics of his party than for most of his contemporaries. It also suggests that the particular form of his Christianity—Methodism—had practical and electoral implications for him, and in particular invested him with a sense of duty to do God's work in the mortal world. This chapter also highlights the role of Wainwright's connection with religious organisations in providing him with an important platform from which to build his local profile, and they gave voters a shorthand signal of his character and convictions which could only otherwise be demonstrated at greater length.

in Richard Wainwright, the Liberals and Liberal Democrats
The case of Rosemary Taylor, Elaine Moir and Margaret Moses
Joy Damousi

During the Vietnam War, relief agencies and religious organisations were swamped with applications from Australians wishing to adopt refugee children from Vietnam. These appeals to government, religious and aid organisations were framed as humanitarian acts driven by compassion and empathy for children whose lives were devastated by war. Underpinning these campaigns was an understanding of humanitarianism informed by an imagined, fantasised future of happiness for such war refugee children. I argue these campaigns of inter-country and transnational adoption of war refugee children were marked by a humanitarianism which was characterised by several factors. The first was the attainment of an idealised, untainted childhood which had been destroyed by war, but which could how retrieved and reconstructed through adoption. Second, adoptees perceived themselves as saviours and heroes, saving innocent children and providing a narrative of uncomplicated happy resolution, speaking and acting for children. In so doing, they conflated individual motives with altruism and a social imaginary of an idealised family model. Finally, it is argued that the construct of the ‘war orphan’ is never an apolitical practice and a form of humanitarianism based on retrieving an idealised childhood attempts to depoliticise and neutralise the circumstances of violence and war.

in Humanitarianism, empire and transnationalism, 1760–1995
Paul Johnson

extensive provisions designed to ensure that religious organisations that solemnise the marriages of different-​sex couples could not be compelled to solemnise the marriages of same-​sex couples. The Government described these provisions as a ‘quadruple lock’ designed to promote ‘religious freedom’ (Maria Miller MP, HC Debate, 5 February 2013, c.129). The four ‘locks’ included in the MSSCA ensure that: solemnising same-​sex marriage in places of worship or in another place according to religious rites or usages requires a religious organisation to ‘opt-in’; no person or

in Law in popular belief
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The birth and growth of major religions

What do we really know of the origins and first spread of major monotheistic religions, once we strip away the myths and later traditions that developed? Creating God uses modern critical historical scholarship alongside archaeology to describe the times and places which saw the emergence of Mormonism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism. What was the social, economic and political world in which they began, and the framework of other contemporary religious movements in which they could flourish? What was their historical background and what was their geographical setting? Written from a secular viewpoint, the author reveals where a scholarly approach to the history of religions may diverge from the assumptions of faith, and shows the value of comparing different movements and different histories in one account. Throughout history, many individuals have believed that they were in direct contact with a divine source, receiving direction to spread a religious message. A few persuaded others and developed a following, and a small minority of such movements grew into full religions. In time, these movements developed, augmented, selected and invented their own narratives of foundation: stories about the founders’ lives and the early stages in which their religious group emerged. Modern critical scholarship helps us understand something of how a successful religion could emerge, thrive and begin the journey to become a world faith. This book presents a narrative to interest, challenge and intrigue readers interested in the beginnings of some of the most powerful ideas that have influenced human history.

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John Anderson

democracies struggled to consolidate and others failed to get beyond a formal ‘electoralism’ that did little to transform power relationships. During this period many scholars noted the ways in which religious groups, especially Catholic ones, helped to undermine authoritarianism through public critique, defence of human rights, support for civil society, and involvement in the negotiation of political change. In many countries the churches made a contribution to democratisation and in a few countries religious organisations were major players in effecting change. At the

in Christianity and democratisation