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Spirituality and social change

The attempt to both define and understand reform in the later tenth and eleventh centuries is the chief ambition of this book. The book explores ecclesiastical reform as a religious idea and a movement against the backdrop of social and religious change in later tenth- and eleventh-century Europe. In so doing, it seeks, on the one hand, to place the relationship between reform and the papacy in the context of the debate about 'transformation' in its many and varied forms. At the same time, although recognizing that the reform movement had its origins as much in individuals and events far away from Rome and royal courts, it has looked to act as something of a corrective to the recent tendency among historians of emphasizing reform developments in other localities at the expense of those being undertaken in Rome. The book addresses 'the religious revolution of the eleventh century' by exploring how reform and the papacy developed in the eleventh century, and how these changes affected the rules by which medieval society functioned. Particular attention is paid to the question of whether the 'peace of God' movement was a social revolution that progressively blurred into and merged with the papal-sponsored movement for reform, which was gathering pace from the middle of the century, or whether these forces were deliberately compacted by the reformers in their efforts to promote their vision for Christian society.

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Kathleen G. Cushing

leave us with only one side of the story. Even more important, the changes in religious life described in such accounts may often be evidence merely of aspirations to effect change rather than real change. This book looks to address what some historians have called ‘the religious revolution of the eleventh century’. It does so by exploring how reform and the papacy developed in the eleventh century, and how these changes affected the rules by which medieval society functioned. On the one hand, it examines the papacy as an institution within the context of the

in Reform and papacy in the eleventh century
David Arter

on party-building: the four formative revolutions Lipset and Rokkan viewed the main conflict lines moulding the party systems of Western Europe as the increment of four historic revolutions, which will be presented briefly in chronological order. First, there was the religious revolution and in particular the legacy of the Reformation in the sixteenth century. In those areas where the impact of the Reformation was partial, a church–state cleavage gave rise at the party-building phase to parties of both Catholic and Protestant denominations. The de facto division of

in Scandinavian politics today
Religion, politics and the past in post-revolutionary England

Reformation without end reinterprets the English Reformation. No one in eighteenth-century England thought that they lived during ‘the Enlightenment’. Instead, they thought that they still faced the religious, intellectual and political problems unleashed by the Reformation, which began in the sixteenth century. They faced those problems, though, in the aftermath of two bloody seventeenth-century political and religious revolutions.

This book is about the ways the eighteenth-century English debated the causes and consequences of those seventeenth-century revolutions. Those living in post-revolutionary England conceived themselves as living in the midst of the very thing which they thought had caused the revolutions: the Reformation. The reasons for and the legacy of the Reformation remained hotly debated in post-revolutionary England because the religious and political issues it had generated remained unresolved and that irresolution threatened more civil unrest. For this reason, most that got published during the eighteenth century concerned religion. This book looks closely at the careers of four of the eighteenth century’s most important polemical divines, Daniel Waterland, Conyers Middleton, Zachary Grey and William Warburton. It relies on a wide range of manuscript sources, including annotated books and unpublished drafts, to show how eighteenth-century authors crafted and pitched their works.

Supernatural beliefs have been vital to Scottish cultural development. In the early modern period, the Kirk played an all-important role in parish life, schooling the Scots on how to interpret the invisible world. Theologians and philosophers mused about the nature of God’s providence and the wiles of the Devil. Folk tradition peopled the landscape with fairies and nature spirits. The witch trials displayed the very real consequences of belief systems that would later be reframed as fantastical.

This book analyses the Scottish supernatural between about 1500 and 1800. Drawing together an international range of scholars with expertise in history, ethnology and literary studies, it explores the diverse ways in which Scots understood and experienced magical beings and extraordinary events. There are chapters on trance experiences, spirit-guides, angels, preaching on the supernatural, political prophecies, providence, astrology, Second Sight and the Enlightenment’s encounter with the paganism of classical antiquity. The book’s historical material is framed by two literary chapters: one on the ‘elrich’ supernatural in the poetry of the early sixteenth century, and one on the political supernatural in the poetry of the eighteenth century.

Overall, the book examines the cultural function of supernatural beliefs, and assesses how these beliefs evolved amid the upheaval of the Reformation, political and religious revolution, the emergence of the Enlightenment and the beginnings of romanticism.

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Lauren Mancia

Mysticism (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012), pp. 157–66. 3 Or apparently secular. For more on this, see Kathleen Davis, Periodization and Sovereignty: How Ideas of Feudalism and Secularization Govern the Politics of Time (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008), pp. 77–102; Brad S. Gregory, The Unintended Reformation: How a Religious Revolution Secularized Society (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012), pp. 365–87. 4 Charles Taylor, A Secular Age (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University

in Emotional monasticism
Michelle M. Sauer

to leave and take up a life of the wandering preacher.7 In this case, although the people begin to come to the hermit, the hermits remove themselves from the people, and again, like the desert fathers, only attend to the community on their own terms. In Wayward Monks and the Religious Revolution of the Eleventh Century, Phyllis Jestice notes that escape from the distractions of secular life is much easier for a hermit to achieve than a recluse because a hermit can get up and go to a more remote area if he is troubled too much by visitors, returning again to tend to

in Roadworks
T. M. Devine

Disruption in 1843. This enormous expansion in missionary effort produced nothing less than a religious revolution in the Highlands. The dramatic peaks of the new spiritual awakening were the religious revivals which occurred with increasing frequency after 1790, which took place in Moulin in 1799, Arran and Skye in 1812, Breadalbane in Perthshire in 1816, on several occasions in Lewis from 1824 to 1833, and in Skye and parts of the Outer Hebrides in the early 1840s. At such times whole communities were seized with religious frenzy, manifested in convulsions, wailing and

in Clanship to crofters’ war
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Alec Ryrie

religious revolution, is the subject of this book. NOTES 1 T. C. Smout, A History of the Scottish People 1560–1830 (London, 1969). 2 Margo Todd, The Culture of Protestantism in Early Modern Scotland (New Haven and London, 2002). 3 Linda Colley, Britons: Forging the Nation 1707–1837 (New Haven and London, 1992); Roger Mason, ‘Scotching the Brut: politics, history and national myth in sixteenthcentury Britain’ in Roger Mason (ed.), Scotland and England 1285–1815 (Edinburgh, 1987), 60–84; Jane Dawson, ‘Anglo-Scottish Protestant culture and integration in sixteenth

in The origins of the Scottish Reformation
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Women and the act of reading
Richard De Ritter

of readers draws attention to their historicity, by illuminating 2 Imagining women readers the way in which acts of reading are conceptualised in relation to the discursive debates that shaped the period’s cultural landscape. Rather than ‘de-historicizing’ women readers, the approach pursued in this book emphasises the social and cultural specificity of those constructions, and demonstrates how acts of reading can be implicated within ‘such momentous processes as long-term social mobility, political and religious revolutions, changing gender relations, growing

in Imagining women readers, 1789–1820