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Author: Christina Morin

This book addresses the intriguing incongruity between naming Charles Robert Maturin as a 'well-known' author of the Romantic period and the lack of any real critical analysis of his works in the past thirty years. The central thesis of the book is that Maturin's novels provide the key to a new understanding of Irish national fiction as a peculiarly haunted form of literature. Specifically, it argues that Maturin's too often overlooked body of fiction forcefully underscores the haunting presence of the past and past literary forms in early nineteenth-century Irish literature. It is a presence so often omitted and/or denied in current critical studies of Irish Romantic fiction. The book represents a project of ghost-hunting and ghost-conjuring. It investigates the ways in which Maturin's fourth novel attempts to build on the ruins of the Irish nation by describing the fissures produced by religious sectarianism in the country. The book makes use of the rarely consulted correspondence between Maturin and the publisher Archibald Constable. It does this to emphasise the manner in which Maturin's completion of his novel, Melmoth the wanderer was at all times crowded by, and, indeed, infiltrated with, his work on competing texts. These include books of sermons, Gothic dramas, short stories, and epic poems interspersed with prose narrative.

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Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

against outside threats. It can also, however, create the basis for an “us” against “them” type of mentality whereby anything emanating from outside the group’s shared identity is automatically viewed with suspicion or seen as a potential threat. Probably nowhere else in the world is group identity—be it ethnic, racial, religious, sectarian, or communal—so closely associated with persistent, and even genocidal, violence than in Africa. “Over half of the top twenty countries in the world where people are most under threat of genocide or mass killing are in Africa,” noted

in African security in the twenty-first century
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The burden of words in Women; or pour et contre
Christina Morin

past. More than that, Zaira’s competition with her own daughter for the love of the hero, Charles De Courcy, mirrors the internal, religious conflicts Maturin describes as dividing contemporary Ireland. In particular, Women explores the current state of religious sectarianism in Ireland, focusing not, as we might expect, on the traditional Irish factionalism of Protestantism and Catholicism but on

in Charles Robert Maturin and the haunting of Irish Romantic fiction
Carol Helmstadter

This chapter analyzes Nightingale’s problems in the East: the resistance of many doctors and army officers, directing nurses in hospitals which were hundreds of miles apart in Turkey and Russia, and establishing discipline among the disparate group of women who volunteered as nurses. The myths that Nightingale effected all her improvements with only thirty-eight nurses and that she directed the nursing in all the military hospitals are set straight. The working-class nurses, who had the clinical experience essential for their work, often lacked respectability; by mid-January 1855 Nightingale had dismissed eight of the fourteen in her original party. She believed nursing systems should align with the earlier Victorian class structure. The Victorian ideology of separate spheres for men and women also made her job more difficult. Nightingale was confined to base hospitals, while the War Department’s orders severely constrained her: first, she was always to strictly follow doctors’ orders and military regulations which required, among other things, getting every requisition signed by two doctors; and second, she was to prevent religious sectarian quarrelling.

in Beyond Nightingale
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Jonathan Benthall

-activist Sayyid Qutb (1906–66) and later, after joining the jihad against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan, he was mentored by Abdullah Yusuf al-Azzam (1941–89), the Palestinian theorist of Islamic radicalism. With characteristic originality, Akbar Ahmed compensates for what he sees as excessive emphasis by commentators on Bin Laden as a religious sectarian. When there was conflict between Bin

in Islamic charities and Islamic humanism in troubled times
Challenges and opportunities

This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.

Bussing, race and urban space, 1960s–80s
Author: Olivier Esteves

In 1960–62, a large number of white autochthonous parents in Southall became very concerned that the sudden influx of largely non-Anglophone Indian immigrant children in local schools would hold back their children’s education. It was primarily to placate such fears that ‘dispersal’ (or ‘bussing’) was introduced in areas such as Southall and Bradford, as well as to promote the integration of mostly Asian children. It consisted in sending busloads of immigrant children to predominantly white suburban schools, in an effort to ‘spread the burden’. This form of social engineering went on until the early 1980s. This book, by mobilising local and national archival material as well as interviews with formerly bussed pupils in the 1960s and 1970s, reveals the extent to which dispersal was a flawed policy, mostly because thousands of Asian pupils were faced with racist bullying on the playgrounds of Ealing, Bradford, etc. It also investigates the debate around dispersal and the integration of immigrant children, e.g. by analysing the way some Local Education Authorities (Birmingham, London) refused to introduce bussing. It studies the various forms that dispersal took in the dozen or so LEAs where it operated. Finally, it studies local mobilisations against dispersal by ethnic associations and individuals. It provides an analysis of debates around ‘ghetto schools’, ‘integration’, ‘separation’, ‘segregation’ where quite often the US serves as a cognitive map to make sense of the English situation.

Bryan Fanning

published in Administration. David Thornely’s Ireland: The End of an Era? (1965) had also first appeared in Studies. What is important to note here is that much of the agenda that Tuairim fostered was also championed in other milieus. Donal Barrington’s classic essay Uniting Ireland offered scathing criticism of the capacity of Irish nationalism to transcend religious sectarianism. What he had to say prefigured much that Conor Cruise O’Brien later wrote on the topic. The same 1957 issue of Studies that carried Uniting Ireland also included an essay by O’Brien that

in Irish adventures in nation-building
Negotiating confessional difference in early modern Christmas celebrations
Phebe Jensen

in Elizabethan and Jacobean England begins to come into focus as a time during which feasting and reveling, especially with neighbors of different devotional orientations, could be a self-​conscious show of English unity in the face of religious sectarianism. A striking aspect of the Christmas hosting in this period is the breadth of participation from families throughout the devotional spectrum. Unlike the godly in Amsterdam or Scotland, hotter Protestants in England seemed to have defied their brethren’s more radical attacks on the holiday, and hosted their

in Forms of faith
Political prints of the Popish Plot and Exclusion Crisis – the revision of a republican mode
Christina M. Carlson

-​ popish rhetoric, turning it into the potentially subversive hallmark of religious sectarianism (Presbyterianism) and political radicalism (republicanism). In the wake of the Popish Plot and Exclusion Crisis, the move, on the part of the Whigs in general and College in particular, to evoke fears of popery and arbitrary government, as the republicans had done throughout the period of the English civil wars, had the effect, according to the Tories, of raising the spectre of a repeat performance: another ‘’41’. This shows how republicanism was rewritten in the pro

in From Republic to Restoration