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In 2002, the French party system seems to be demonstrating a fluidity, if not outright instability, equal to any period in the Fifth Republic's history. This book explores the extent to which this represents outright change and shifts within a stable structure. Portrayals of French political culture point to incivisme, individualism and a distrust of organizations. The book focuses on three fundamental political issues such as 'politics', 'power' and 'justice', which appear in almost all political discussions and conflicts. It identifies different 'types' of state in political theory and looks at the major challenges to practical state sovereignty in the modern world. Discussing the concept of the nation in the United Kingdom, the book identifies both cultural and political aspects of nationhood. These include nation and state; race and nation; language and the nation; religion and national identity; government and nation; common historical and cultural ties; and a sense of 'nationhood'. Liberal democracy, defensive democracy and citizen democracy/republican democracy are explained. The book also analyses John Stuart Mill's and Isaiah Berlin's views on 'negative' and 'positive' freedom. Conservatism is one of the major intellectual and political strains of thought in Western culture. Liberalism has become the dominant ideology in the third millennium. Socialism sprang from the industrial revolution and the experience of the class that was its product, the working class. Events have made 'fascism' a term of political abuse rather than one of serious ideological analysis. Environmentalism and ecologism constitute one of the most recent ideological movements.

Eoin Daly
and
Tom Hickey

vested in a body comprised of agents who are themselves subject to the people’s control, and which in turn is unfettered by any unaccountable or uncontrolled authority. Thus an elected legislative assembly of some kind ought to form the centrepiece of the institutional architecture in a republican democracy. More broadly, the idea of political constitutionalism suggests that a non-dominating form of self-rule 116 Republican institutions cannot be secured by entrusting to apolitical judicial authorities the interpretation and enforcement of basic rights, but only by

in The political theory of the Irish Constitution
Naren Chitty
and
Chenjun Wang

US administrations have indulged in the kind of partisan politics that George Washington and Thomas Jefferson deplored; but have for the most part succeeded in presenting an attractive spectacle of republican democracy to many like-minded observers across the world – becoming a soft power resource. This can be seen in the light of Joseph Nye’s ‘city on the hill effect’. 5

in Soft power and the future of US foreign policy
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison
and
Tony Boyd

be identified: Democracy as a system of government. Here we can discern two forms of democracy: ‘defensive democracy’ and ‘citizen democracy’/‘republican democracy’; democracy and legitimising government; majority rule and democracy; equality of citizenship rights; public opinion in democracies; the rule of law and democracy. Democracy as a system of government Ancient Greeks, such as Aristotle in

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Power, accountability and democracy

Does European integration contribute to, or even accelerate, the erosion of intra-party democracy? This book is about improving our understanding of political parties as democratic organisations in the context of multi-level governance. It analyses the impact of European Union (EU) membership on power dynamics, focusing on the British Labour Party, the French Socialist Party (PS), and the German Social Democratic Party (SPD). The purpose of this book is to investigate who within the three parties determines EU policies and selects EU specialists, such as the candidates for European parliamentary elections and EU spokespersons.

The book utilises a principal-agent framework to investigate the delegation of power inside the three parties across multiple levels and faces. It draws on over 65 original interviews with EU experts from the three national parties and the Party of European Socialists (PES) and an e-mail questionnaire. This book reveals that European policy has largely remained in the hands of the party leadership. Its findings suggest that the party grassroots are interested in EU affairs, but that interest rarely translates into influence, as information asymmetry between the grassroots and the party leadership makes it very difficult for local activists to scrutinise elected politicians and to come up with their own policy proposals. As regards the selection of EU specialists, such as candidates for the European parliamentary elections, this book highlights that the parties’ processes are highly political, often informal, and in some cases, undemocratic.

Abstract only
Diana Holmes
and
David Looseley

questions are broadly but intensely political – most conspicuously, perhaps, in the cases of television and language – but also ideological, as with the complex semantics of chanson. In Republican France, built on the twin yet sometimes contradictory principles of republican democracy and state dirigisme, popular culture has at one level meant a culture taken to the working class, a democratisation of high or élite culture with the aim of creating a politically and civically desirable common culture to enrich the lives of all. Educational and cultural policies, and

in Imagining the popular in contemporary French culture
Abstract only
France’s inter-war empire: a framework for analysis
Martin Thomas

conditions. A republican democracy withheld basic rights and freedoms from its overseas subjects, amplifying the exclusion of French women from the metropolitan electoral process by insisting that colonial peoples of both sexes were generally incapable of making informed political choices. A republican state founded on hostility to hereditary privilege relied on tribal chiefs and colonial monarchs to maintain

in The French empire between the wars
Abstract only
Martin Thomas

something of an allegory. Wartime recollections of empire were employed either as an object lesson in the decadence of French Republican democracy and the divisiveness of Gaullism or as proof of the lasting strengths of the Republican ideal and the virtues of inspired leadership. 7 Control of the French empire was vital to the competing French leaderships of 1940–44. The empire was a physical

in The French empire at war 1940–45
Eoin Daly
and
Tom Hickey

control – and specifically, a shared and popular form of control – and it is this notion that should inform the design of political institutions in a republican democracy. 98 Republican institutions But the control exercised by a large and diverse group of citizens over its government is multi-layered and complex in comparison with that exercised by a would-be slave over its master, or in any other inter-personal relationship. It is far from self-evident that a disparate, heterogeneous group of citizens, pulled in different directions by competing interests, could

in The political theory of the Irish Constitution
Open Access (free)
Implications for the party system
David Hanley

-Lavau, 1998, Cambadélis, 1999: 71–83). This is not just due to electoral bipolarisation, which may be as much a reflection as a cause; voters do still tend to split broadly along the left–right axis, as they have done since republican democracy became the norm (Charlot, 1993, Boy and Mayer, 2000). Obviously the values that underpin left and right identities evolve, as do the partisan forces that express them. But on election day, left-wing voters expect to find an adequate supply in party terms for their aspirations. This supply should normally confront a similar supply on

in The French party system