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Series: Pocket Politics
Author: Edward Ashbee

This book explores how a candidate who broke with almost every single norm governing candidate behaviour, appeared to eschew the professionalised forms of campaigning, and who had been more or less disowned by Republican elites, prove victorious? The focus is on Trump and his campaign; the account does not go beyond the November election and its immediate aftermath. The book argues that the Trump campaign, like earlier populist insurgencies, can be explained in part by considering some defining features of US political culture and, in particular, attitudes towards government. It explains the right-wing populism that has been a recurrent and ingrained feature of the political process over a long period. The book discusses structural characteristics of the American state that appear to be of particular significance in shaping attitudes, as well as some other ideas and frames brought to the forefront by the Trump campaign during the course of 2015 and 2016. It also considers the shifts and swings amongst voters and suggests that these, alongside ideas about the state and the 'entrepreneurial' efforts of the campaign, form part of the explanation for Trump's eventual victory. The book assesses Trump's ascendancy as a function of, and reaction to, the strategies and discourses pursued in the years preceding 2016 by Republican Party elites. 'Trumpism' and European forms of populism are still in some ways weakly embedded but they may intensify the battles and processes of group competition between different constituencies.

Edward Ashbee

mistake to explain the Trump campaign or other outbursts of right-wing populism in the US by considering American history alone. After all, populist sentiments have a comparable place in many European countries. For example, as polls conducted in the second half of 2016 suggested, attitudes towards immigration, Islam and ‘political correctness’ were very similar in the US and Denmark (although, having said that, only 4 per cent of Danes admitted to supporting Trump's presidential campaign) (Motta, 2016 ). Nonetheless, although there were movements such as Poujadisme

in The Trump revolt
Vittorio Bufacchi

distorted understanding of the social and political landscape, where the excluded masses are oppressed by a ruling elite. Populist movements are the self-proclaimed dissenting political forces out to shatter the status quo. An irreverent, nonconformist agenda explains populism’s attraction, especially right-wing populism, which is the subject of this chapter. By giving a voice to the powerless, the populists’ aspiration is to dislodge the ingrained interests of the power-elite. Populism is the voice of the excluded against the entrenched elite; their leaders see

in Everything must change
Hilary Charlesworth and Christine Chinkin

, Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria and Yemen enhanced militarism and lessened commitment in many areas to the international rule of law upheld by multilateral institutions and human rights. 14 Right-wing populism and authoritarian regimes have further reduced the certainties of progressive reform. 15 The main argument of Boundaries was that the conceptual and institutional borders of mainstream international law

in The boundaries of international law
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Unsettling dominant narratives about migration in a time of flux
Kirsten Forkert, Federico Oliveri, Gargi Bhattacharyya, and Janna Graham

This concluding chapter summarises the key insights of the book. It also reflects on how these might apply to the current political moment, which at the time of writing is characterised by political flux and emerging right-wing populism (within which anti-immigration politics plays a central role). This situation underlines the persistence of questions of international responsibility and the role of the media in covering conflicts (and those who flee them). It ends by calling for networks of solidarity to challenge white amnesia and postcolonial innocence.

in How media and conflicts make migrants
Brazil in the age of Bolsonaro
Author: Richard Lapper

Backed by Brazil’s wealthy agribusiness groups, a growing evangelical movement, and an emboldened military and police force, Jair Bolsonaro took office as Brazil’s president in 2019. Driven by the former army captain’s brand of controversial, aggressive rhetoric, the divisive presidential campaign saw fake news and misinformation shared with Bolsonaro’s tens of millions of social media followers. Bolsonaro promised simple solutions to Brazil’s rising violent crime, falling living standards and widespread corruption, but what has emerged is Latin America's most right-wing president since the military dictatorships of the 1970s. Famous for his racist, homophobic and sexist beliefs and his disregard for human rights, the so-called ‘Trump of the Tropics’ has established a reputation based on his polemical, sensationalist statements. Written by a journalist with decades of experience in the field, Beef, Bible and bullets is a compelling account of the origins of Brazil's unique brand of right-wing populism. Lapper offers the first major assessment of the Bolsonaro government and the growing tensions between extremist and moderate conservatives.

Making sense of the rise of China and India
Joy Y. Zhang and Saheli Datta Burton

converting scientific possibilities into visible benefits by the people, for the people. 2) The anti-hegemonic element in this developmental view of science makes it different from right-wing populism as it draws on a vertical distinction between the people and the elites, rather than a horizontal distinction based on national membership as most right-wing populisms do (De Cleen and Stavrakakis, 2017 ). 3) We also draw attention to the transnational nature of this leftist view. As this chapter demonstrates, both China and India do not have an

in The elephant and the dragon in contemporary life sciences
Abstract only
Richard Dunphy and Luke March

Italy a combined list of the PRC and SI managed only 2.8 per cent. This means that for the first time ever not a single French or Italian communist will be present in the European Parliament. In France, Mélénchon's La France Insoumise (see Conclusion) took the lion's share of the radical left vote, although the six MEPs that it won were far less than it had hoped for. In Italy, the resurgent forces of right-wing populism completely swamped the radical left. Yanis Varoufakis’ DiEM25 movement made little impact, failing to win any seats. In the whole of Eastern and

in The European Left Party
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Donald Trump, neoliberalism and political reconfiguration
Edward Ashbee

European and American forms, right-wing populism put the nation, class, race and the role of the state back on the agenda. In doing so it was capturing and building upon shifts that had been evident for some years. In the US, references to a ‘working class’ had been few and far between long before the advent of the neoliberal era. In most discourses, almost everyone was subsumed within the American ‘middle class’. Yet, under the weight of the crisis class made a re-appearance. According to Gallup polling in the US, only 33 per cent called themselves working class in 2000

in The Trump revolt
Open Access (free)
Mark B. Brown

to the popular branch of systems of ‘mixed government’ that combined democratic, aristocratic and monarchical elements (Wood, 1992). Liberal elites worried about the corrupting influence of the unwashed masses and the ‘tyranny of the majority’. As John Stuart Mill noted in 1859, ‘The “people” who exercise the power are not always the same people with those over whom it is exercised’ (Mill, 1978 [1859]: 4). The recent increase of xenophobic right-wing populism in both Europe and the United States lends new urgency to such concerns, including questions 170 Science

in Science and the politics of openness