GP involvement, for instance, emerged in relation to pre-symptomatic disease and prevention, areas of considerable interest to some GPs, especially those connected with academic institutions. By the early 1970s, poor-quality evidence and cost concerns had seen such claims superseded, with GP care entangled in long-held discussions about the unique social, psychological, and clinical skills of GPs. Finally, appeals to preventive riskmanagement returned alongside the themes of practice organisation in the 1980s and 1990s, as bodies like the Royal College of General
Conservative–Liberal Democrat coalition government's
‘Big Society’ agenda and groups such as ‘local
resilience forums’, which paralleled the US Department of
Homeland Security's (DHS) encouragement of citizen involvement in
the riskmanagement cycle. This increasing reliance on the citizen as a
key stakeholder in national security policy and practices is epitomised
in instructions issued to the public – as in
Security-riskmanagement has long been a concern at Médecins du Monde (MdM),
as it was for other humanitarian agencies operating at the height of the Cold War.
However, it was in the 1990s that security had to address its own set of issues. The
collapse of the Soviet bloc and the post-Cold War conflicts created safety issues
for humanitarian agencies: a booming aid sector led to an increase in exposure,
together with a trend for
The Law and Politics of Responding to Attacks against Aid Workers
Julia Brooks and Rob Grace
vulnerabilities. Such measures – including physically fortifying humanitarians (often criticised as ‘bunkerisation’) or implementing bureaucratic riskmanagement procedures to prevent humanitarian actors from operating in locations where security risks are too severe – aim to reduce humanitarians’ vulnerabilities but shy away from addressing the threats themselves. A ‘protection’ approach distinguishes this category in a sense that it aims – to quote the seminal report, To Stay and Deliver , published in 2011 by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs – ‘to
The early part of the twenty-first century has witnessed a sea-change in regulation of the financial system following the financial crisis of 2007-2008. Prior to that financial crisis, the official policy was directed to deregulating the financial system, whereas after 2008 the move is towards increased regulation. This book begins the study of the UK financial system with an introduction to the role of a financial system in an economy, and a very simple model of an economy. In this model the economy is divided into two distinct groups or sectors. The first is the household sector and the second is the firms sector. The book describes the process of financial intermediation, and in doing so, it examines the arguments as to why we need financial institutions. It highlights the nature of financial intermediation, and examines the various roles of financial intermediaries: banks as transformers, undertaking of transformation process, and providers of liquidity insurance. The nature of banking, the operations carried out by banks, and the categories of banking operations are discussed next. The book also examines the investment institutions and other investment vehicles. It examines the role of central banks in the financial system in principle, particularly, the role of the Bank of England. Primary market for equity issues, secondary market, the global stock market crash of October 1987 and efficient markets hypothesis are also covered. The book also looks at the trading of financial derivatives, risk management, bank regulation, and the regulation of life insurance companies, pension funds.
she dubbed ‘humanitarian exceptionalism’, the idea that aid workers should
be protected at all times and in all places by virtue of the uniqueness of their
function and moral standing. In the same year, arguably the apex of the heroisation of
humanitarian workers, the UN launched the #HumanitarianHero campaign on 19 August to
celebrate World Humanitarian Day ( Neuman,
MSF published a multi-author review of its experience in riskmanagement in 2016 ( Neuman and
organisation like the IS would not be prosecuted ( Dreazen and Jakes, 2015 ).
Therefore, while it is advisable to discuss previous cases with discretion,
nothing justifies maintaining an information blackout, especially since secrecy
hinders improvements to kidnapping prevention and riskmanagement.
Appeal for a Minimum Level of Transparency (Rather than Complete
Rachel Briggs, security researcher and Executive Director
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian
Humanitarian Evacuation in the Balkans
1991–95 ’, International
Organization , 57 : 4 ,
661 – 94 . doi: 10.1017/S002081830357401X .
( 2013 ), Paradoxes of Presence: RiskManagement and Aid
Culture in Challenging Environments .
London : Humanitarian
and Staying Alive: Humanitarian Security in the Age of
RiskManagement ( London :
C. Hurst & Co. ), pp.
71 – 82 .
( 2016 ), ‘ Risky Business: Race,
Nonequivalence and the Humanitarian Politics of
Life ’, Visual Anthropology ,
29 : 2 :
187 – 203
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian
( 2016 ), Saving Lives and Staying Alive: Humanitarian
Security in the Age of RiskManagement
( London : Hurst and
( 2001 ), ‘Remarks to the National Foreign
Policy Conference for Leaders of