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Martin D. Moore

GP involvement, for instance, emerged in relation to pre-symptomatic disease and prevention, areas of considerable interest to some GPs, especially those connected with academic institutions. By the early 1970s, poor-quality evidence and cost concerns had seen such claims superseded, with GP care entangled in long-held discussions about the unique social, psychological, and clinical skills of GPs. Finally, appeals to preventive risk management returned alongside the themes of practice organisation in the 1980s and 1990s, as bodies like the Royal College of General

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
Daniel Stevens and Nick Vaughan-Williams

–15 Conservative–Liberal Democrat coalition government's ‘Big Society’ agenda and groups such as ‘local resilience forums’, which paralleled the US Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) encouragement of citizen involvement in the risk management cycle. This increasing reliance on the citizen as a key stakeholder in national security policy and practices is epitomised in instructions issued to the public – as in

in Everyday security threats
Emmanuelle Strub

History Security-risk management has long been a concern at Médecins du Monde (MdM), as it was for other humanitarian agencies operating at the height of the Cold War. However, it was in the 1990s that security had to address its own set of issues. The collapse of the Soviet bloc and the post-Cold War conflicts created safety issues for humanitarian agencies: a booming aid sector led to an increase in exposure, together with a trend for humanitarian organisations to shift from working

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Law and Politics of Responding to Attacks against Aid Workers
Julia Brooks and Rob Grace

vulnerabilities. Such measures – including physically fortifying humanitarians (often criticised as ‘bunkerisation’) or implementing bureaucratic risk management procedures to prevent humanitarian actors from operating in locations where security risks are too severe – aim to reduce humanitarians’ vulnerabilities but shy away from addressing the threats themselves. A ‘protection’ approach distinguishes this category in a sense that it aims – to quote the seminal report, To Stay and Deliver , published in 2011 by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs – ‘to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Theory and practice
Authors: Mike Buckle and John Thompson

The early part of the twenty-first century has witnessed a sea-change in regulation of the financial system following the financial crisis of 2007-2008. Prior to that financial crisis, the official policy was directed to deregulating the financial system, whereas after 2008 the move is towards increased regulation. This book begins the study of the UK financial system with an introduction to the role of a financial system in an economy, and a very simple model of an economy. In this model the economy is divided into two distinct groups or sectors. The first is the household sector and the second is the firms sector. The book describes the process of financial intermediation, and in doing so, it examines the arguments as to why we need financial institutions. It highlights the nature of financial intermediation, and examines the various roles of financial intermediaries: banks as transformers, undertaking of transformation process, and providers of liquidity insurance. The nature of banking, the operations carried out by banks, and the categories of banking operations are discussed next. The book also examines the investment institutions and other investment vehicles. It examines the role of central banks in the financial system in principle, particularly, the role of the Bank of England. Primary market for equity issues, secondary market, the global stock market crash of October 1987 and efficient markets hypothesis are also covered. The book also looks at the trading of financial derivatives, risk management, bank regulation, and the regulation of life insurance companies, pension funds.

Editor’s Introduction
Michaël Neuman, Fernando Espada and Róisín Read

dubbed ‘humanitarian exceptionalism’, the idea that aid workers should be protected at all times and in all places by virtue of the uniqueness of their function and moral standing. In the same year, arguably the apex of the heroisation of humanitarian workers, the UN launched the #HumanitarianHero campaign on 19 August to celebrate World Humanitarian Day ( Neuman, 2017 ). MSF published a multi-author review of its experience in risk management in 2016 ( Neuman and Weissman, 2016 ). In particular, the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Fabrice Weissman

a terrorist organisation like the IS would not be prosecuted ( Dreazen and Jakes, 2015 ). Therefore, while it is advisable to discuss previous cases with discretion, nothing justifies maintaining an information blackout, especially since secrecy hinders improvements to kidnapping prevention and risk management. Appeal for a Minimum Level of Transparency (Rather than Complete Transparency) Rachel Briggs, security researcher and Executive Director of Hostage US, a non

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector
Miriam Bradley

, M. ( 2013 ), Paradoxes of Presence: Risk Management and Aid Culture in Challenging Environments . London : Humanitarian Policy Group/Overseas Development Institute . Cutts , M. and Dingle , A. ( 1995 ), Safety First: Protecting NGO Employees Who Work in Areas of Conflict . London : Save the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

Humanitarianism’ , International Review of the Red Cross , 96 : 894 , 641 – 8 . Neuman , M. and Weissman , F. (eds) ( 2016 ), Saving Lives and Staying Alive: Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management ( London : Hurst and Co ). Powell , C. ( 2001 ), ‘Remarks to the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War
Xavier Crombé and Joanna Kuper

, F. ( 2016 ), ‘ Violence against Aid Workers: The Meaning of Measuring ’, in Neuman , M. and Weissman , F. (eds), Saving Lives and Staying Alive. Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management ( London : Hurst and Co ), pp. 55 – 66 .

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs