James Mill (1773-1836) never visited India, adhered to Jeremy Bentham’s rational, utilitarian philosophy and in his History of British India (1817), attributed India’s "low" and "rude" state of civilisation in the 1800s to an absence of reliable, historical records and to a too great submission to superstition and despotism. James Tod, on the other hand, spent 22 years in India, respected the non-European uniqueness of Rajput historical chronicles, and spent much energy in establishing a coherent narrative of the past exploits of the various Rajput clans, in order to secure policies that would ensure Rajput support for the British Government in India. In 1831-32, in their recommendations to the British Parliament in the context of the renewal of the East India Company’s Charter, the respective views of Mill and Tod, while seeming to be poles apart at first, reveal, in fact, similar high ideals for a British Government in India beneficial to all concerned, while undergoing similar bureaucratic pressures. In reality, James Mill actually supported innovative reforms and liberating change for India, while Tod combined an ethos of Romanticism with an agenda of down-to-earth improvements.

in Knowledge, mediation and empire

Britain's Chief Rabbis were attempting to respond to the new religious climate, and deployed a variety of tactics to achieve their aims. This book presents a radical new interpretation of Britain's Chief Rabbis from Nathan Adler to Immanuel Jakobovits. It examines the theologies of the Chief Rabbis and seeks to reveal and explain their impact on the religious life of Anglo-Jewry. The book begins with the study of Nathan Marcus Adler, Chief Rabbi from 1845, and it then explores how in 1880 Hermann Adler became Delegate Chief Rabbi on his father's semi-retirement to Brighton. In the pre-modern era, and for a while after, rabbis saw themselves and were seen as the heirs of the rabbinic tradition, whose role first and foremost was to rule on matters of religious law. The book argues that the Chief Rabbis' response to modernity should be viewed in the context of Jewish religious responses that emerged following the Enlightenment and Emancipation. It sketches out a possible typology of those responses, so that Chief Rabbis can be placed in that context. Chief Rabbis were members of the acknowledgement school, which contained a number of different theological currents: romantic, scientific, aesthetic and nostalgic. Hermann Adler was the Chief Rabbi during his time, and his religious policies were to a great extent motivated by his religious ideas. Joseph Herman Hertz's theology placed him in the traditional group within the acknowledgement school, although he was influenced by its scientific, romantic and aesthetic branches.

James Tod’s journeys among the Rajputs

James Tod (1782-1835) spent twenty-two years in India (1800-1822), during the last five of which he was Political Agent of the British Government in India to the Western Rajput States in north-west India. His book studies Tod’s relationships with particular Rajput leaders and with the Rajputs as a group in general, in order to better understand his attempts to portray their history, geographical moorings and social customs to British and European readers. The book highlights Tod’s apparently numerous motivations in writing on the Rajputs: to bring knowledge about the Rajputs into European circles, to demonstrate that the Rajputs maintained historical records from the early middle ages and were thus not a primitive people without awareness of their own history, and to establish possible ethnic links between the warrior-like Rajputs and the peoples of Europe, as also between the feudal institutions of Rajputana and Europe. Fierce criticisms in Tod’s time of his ethnic and institutional hypotheses about connections between Rajputs and Europeans illustrate that Tod’s texts did not leave his readers indifferent.

The approach adopted uses available documents to go beyond a binary opposition between the colonisers and the colonised in India, by focusing on traces of friendly exchanges between Tod and his British colleagues on the one hand, and on the other hand, various members of the kingdoms of western India, with whom they interacted. Under themes like landscape, anthropology, science, Romantic literature, approaches to government policy, and knowledge exchanges in India and in London, this volume analyses Tod’s role as a mediator of knowledge through his travels across a little-known part of the British Empire in the early 19th century.

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James Tod’s role in knowledge exchanges with the Rajputs

. Even if Metcalf telescopes this Romantic approach further into the nineteenth century, where he perceives its manifestation in the British collector as the compassionate father and mother of the peasantry (which goes beyond the scope of the present study), his classification has the merit of underlining the multiple inspirations that came into play in the formulation of British policies in India. In

in Knowledge, mediation and empire
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Under the influence

Without Art (1934). Lewis, a modernist writing specifically against Romantic approaches to art and literature and against the nineteenth-century novel, provides a useful template to consider Self ’s work. Like Self, Swift is the major figure in the tradition within which Lewis places his own work and which he seeks to defend (Lewis uses a long quote from the passage describing the Maids of Honour of Brobdingnag in his discussion). As far as the coincidence of satire and the grotesque is concerned, Lewis sees them as inextricably linked: There is a stiffening of Satire

in The grotesque in contemporary British fiction
Keeping the crusades up to date

still being played out in modern political conflicts. Michaud was never and is not neutral. Perhaps uniquely among crusade historians, his ideas, work and their transmission in Europe, America and the Muslim Near East over the following two centuries repay the serious attention of students of modern international affairs. A recent website commentary dedicated to crusader historians could not have been more wrong to say that ‘given Michaud’s ‘romanticapproach to the subject, his works are now mostly of value to modern scholars of medievalism’.23 The author could, as

in The Debate on the Crusades
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Valletta, Rangoon and new capitals

around Valletta, had to be submitted to the government to ensure that they did not interfere with the extensive bastions and walled defences. There were repeated reports on the ways in which the islands could be defended in time of war, and these took into consideration both the built environment and food and water supplies.4 The architectural and monumental history of the island colony also reflects the fact that it seemed ripe for the development of a Romantic approach, given its key position in the Mediterranean close to the lands of the ancient empires of Greece

in The British Empire through buildings
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Existentialist Islam as intercultural translation

philosopher can be regarded as a cultural mediator who seeks to productively confront non-​Western and Western concepts of religion, spirituality, modernity and humanism. However, his work goes well beyond a limiting notion of intercultural dialogue based on a concept of cultures as bounded entities and indeed, changes over the course of several years. So, at the start of his career, Bidar’s work seems to resonate with the German Romantic approach to translation as developed by Wilhelm von Humboldt (1816–​1909) whereby, according to Buden et  al., ‘the translator should be

in Secularism, Islam and public intellectuals in contemporary France

:  University of California Press, 1983), 116–118, 144–152, 187–196). Close asserts that all attempts to read the novel as anything else other than a burlesque comedy and its hero as the comic relief betrays Cervantes’s intention of parodying the chivalric genre. For Close, Don Quijote’s madness should not be subjected to interpretations that engage the social world in which the hidalgo lived. It is only a literary device designed to satirise the lack of verisimilarity in chivalric romances (Anthony Close, ‘Don Quixote as a Burlesque Novel’, The Romantic Approach to ‘Don

in The anxiety of sameness in early modern Spain