Benjamin Hoadly and the Eucharist

Chapter 5 The sacrament Socinianized: Benjamin Hoadly and the Eucharist T he Eucharist long exerted centripetal and centrifugal forces on Christianity, and the Church of England’s formularies captured why that was the case. The Thirty-Nine Articles declared that the sacraments were ‘ordained of Christ’ and were ‘not only badges or tokens of Christian men’s profession, but rather … certain sure witnesses, and effectual signs of grace, and God’s good will towards us, by which he doth work invisibly in us, and doth not only quicken, but also strengthen and

in Reformation without end
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Selected Latin works in translation

John Wyclif (d. 1384) was among the leading schoolmen of fourteenth-century Europe. He was an outspoken controversialist and critic of the church, and, in his last days at Oxford, the author of the greatest heresy that England had known. This volume offers translations of a representative selection of his Latin writings on theology, the church and the Christian life. It offers a comprehensive view of the life of this charismatic but irascible medieval theologian, and of the development of the most prominent dissenting mind in pre-Reformation England. This collection will be of interest to undergraduate and graduate students of medieval history, historical theology and religious heresy, as well as scholars in the field.

author himself.1 The question of Donne’s ecumenicalism may reasonably prompt us to search Donne’s oeuvre for statements that address the question explicitly. Such searches are quite productive. Even focusing specifically on Eucharistic theology (a particularly contentious area of early modern Christianity), one finds several strongly ecumenical statements in Donne’s sermons:2 A peremptory prejudice upon other mens opinions, that no opinion but thine can be true, in the doctrine of the Sacrament, and an uncharitable condemning of other men, or other Churches that may be

in Forms of faith

is to another place (i.e., to the New Jerusalem).   4 I refer to Gless’s 1994 monograph, Interpretation and Theology. My interpretation of the betrothal/wedding ceremony in canto xii as an allegory of the sacrament of Communion has been anticipated by John King who, in the final sentence of his Spenser Encyclopedia entry under the heading ‘Sacraments’, describes the ceremony as ‘an act that mirrors the union of Christian and Christ in the Communion service’ (624). King has not, however (in so far as I have been able to discover), expanded upon this inspired

in God’s only daughter
Confessional conflict and Elizabethan romances

rather than in (often mumbled) Latin as in the Roman Catholic Sarum mass and by administering bread and wine to the laity, too. The Roman Catholic liturgy and doctrine of transubstantiation were maintained during the early years of Reformation under Henry VIII. When Henry’s young son Edward ascended the throne, the English Reformation gained momentum. Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury and the leading theologian during the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI, gradually adopted Zwingli’s figurative understanding of the sacraments as the official Anglican position

in Forms of faith

increasingly acquired the status of sacrament (Albrecht/Weber, 2002a: 2; Targoff, 2008: 158). In England, even fairly close to the beginning of the Reformation, the sermon also gained in significance: ‘The Book of Common Prayer has from its first version in 1549 prescribed a dual ministry of word and sacrament’ (Carrithers, 1972: 10) – under different monarchs, one or other of these ministries was emphasised more (McCullough, 1998: 6). As a priest of the English Church under King James I, Donne appears to have ‘favoured communication over Communion’ (Ferrell, 1992: 63), and

in John Donne’s Performances
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St Michael and All Angels, Sowton and St Mary the Virgin, Ottery St Mary

the central scene, flanked by two further scenes from the Life of Christ. Below small scenes depict Old Testament types of baptism and a New Testament baptism scene. The relevant quotation from the litany underlines the high-church emphasis on this sacrament: ‘By thy Baptism Good Lord deliver us.’ The west window, placed directly above the door, depicts three archangels with text referring to the Last Judgment. The quotations

in Stained Glass and the Victorian Gothic Revival
The parable of the Prodigal Son

repentance, the Gospel parable shows far simpler action than the threefold process of contrition, confession, and satisfaction typically associated with the late medieval sacrament. The son may be contrite, but the father welcomes him home before he verbally expresses wrongdoing, and the story offers no evidence of restitution for his misdeeds. Although the parable raises issues related to justice (more specifically, to the efficacy and rewards of devout action), patterns of revision in Middle English retellings suggest that the portrayal of divine mercy generated the most

in The politics of Middle English parables

of the Supper of the Lord in its sale and application for others (i.e. offering masses for other people). Here the entire theory of Sacrifice was set forth and the use of the Sacraments was shown. And when pious men in the Monasteries now heard that they must flee from Idols, they began to depart from their impious servitude. Therefore Luther added to the explanation of the doctrines on penance, the remission of sins, faith, and indulgences, also these topics: the difference between divine and human laws, the doctrine on the use of the Supper of the Lord and the other

in Luther’s lives
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condemnation of the British Government in 1920. The bishops accused republicans of attacking their country as if it were a foreign power. They declared that they had no legitimate authority for their campaign and, more significantly, branded the republican movement as being inherently opposed to Catholic doctrine. ‘In spite of their obvious sin and the fact of their unlawful rebellion’, they went on, ‘they still play the role of good Catholics and demand the Sacraments’. Consequently, the bishops moved to cut republicans off from the Church. All those who participated in the

in Michael Logue and the Catholic Church in Ireland, 1879–1925