Emigration studies have been a major historiographical concern for many years. This book addresses the significant but neglected issue of return migration to Britain and Europe since 1600. It offers some of the first studies of the phenomenon of returns. While emigration studies have become prominent in both scholarly and popular circles in recent years, return migration has remained comparatively under-researched. Despite evidence that in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries between a quarter and a third of all emigrants from many parts of Britain and Europe ultimately returned to their countries of origin. Emigrant homecomings analyses the motives, experiences and impact of these returning migrants in a wide range of locations over four hundred years, as well as examining the mechanisms and technologies which enabled their return. The book aims to open the debate by addressing some of the major issues in four thematic sections. After an overview of the process of return migration, it addresses the motives of those who returned from a wide variety of locations over a period ranging from the seventeenth century to the present day. The book looks at mechanisms of return, and considers the crucial question of the impact on the homeland of those who returned.
increased from less
than 25,000 in 2008 to nearly 1 million in 2014.
The alarm sounded by the INPS President would appear to add further substance to concerns about rising ‘commodification’ of the labour relationship
which are being increasingly voiced in scholarlycircles in Europe and elsewhere.
Here we understand growing commodification as a process whereby labour
(power) is increasingly treated as a ‘spot’ commodity, hired when, and for
exactly as long as, production requires, with few or no strings attached in terms
of social security, severance pay and sick pay. The
theory of auteurs derived out of the
French New Wave, carried through in America by critic Andrew
Sarris, and followed on by Peter Wollen and Roland Barthes,
offered a range of analytical tools designed to extract meaning
from the film text.2 Sarris argued that an auteur was composed of
three components: technical ability; a distinctive signature visible
across several films; and some intangible third element; the ‘soul’
of the director.3 His model –long since discredited in a number of
scholarlycircles, although a renaissance of sorts has taken place in
Archaeology, networks, and the Smithsonian Institution, 1876–79
James E. Snead
while visiting Washington: his report described the meeting as focused
on shared collecting opportunities, as well as potential ‘exchanges’ that
would ‘make a very handsome nucleus for a museum for the Academy’
(New Orleans Academy of Sciences, 1854: 62).
There was, however, inherent tension in the relationship between
the Smithsonian and others in the antiquarian networks. As local institutions and scholarly ‘circles’ matured throughout the American south
and midwest, tension between national sanction and local achievement
became more common. Collectors or agents
indicative antiquarian approach to the local presence of Flemish weavers, see Tarbutt, ‘Ancient cloth trade of Cranbrook’.
15 Treuherz, Ford Madox Brown , pp. 290–1. For Madox Brown’s own explanatory notes on the mural, written in c. 1893, see Bendiner, Art of Ford Madox Brown , p. 159.
16 Dimes and Mitchell, Building Stone Heritage of Leeds , p. 42. The myth was first dispelled, at least for scholarlycircles, by Heaton, Yorkshire Woollen and Worsted Industries , pp. 8–21. See also, more generally, Gribling, Image
– a major indiscretion in scholarlycircles. He remarked acidly
that were ‘such a tone of criticism’ to become acceptable,
then ‘Natural History would soon resemble an arena of
gladiators’, rather than a decorous community of scholars. 46
Azara was not, of course, the only naturalist to dispense
with rhetorical niceties from time to time. What is interesting about
Rocque: The development of early modern
Dublin’, which describes the transition of Dublin from that depicted
in John Speed’s work of cartography in 1610 to that depicted by John
1 Thomas Herron notes: ‘It is paradoxical and surprising that, despite a late-twentiethcentury surge in literary, historical and cultural studies of Ireland in the period (including imperial, colonial and British studies), as well as new administrative developments
. . . our understanding of the term “Renaissance” in relation to Ireland in scholarlycircles is still highly fragmented and
heart of the matter: the political matrix of the battle which they have joined.
The “Islamization of radicalism” narrative has met with wide approval and resonance far beyond scholarlycircles. It has done so for a simple reason: this analytical framework sets up the violence that hit the streets of Paris as disembodied, and utterly divorced, from the most dubious policies of our governments. As such, it shares an especially fatal flaw with its culturalist rival (“It’s all the fault of Islam”)—the version towards which Kepel’s analysis leans
such, you are adding to the searchable history of that object. Although in scholarlycircles blogposts would be treated as ‘works in progress’, members of the public can perceive them differently. Therefore, it is important to ensure that you note your sources and make clear when you are presenting an opinion rather than a fact.
Examples of useful blogs
A research project: the East India Company at Home project website included object-based case studies from scholars both in and outside academic institutions: http
of the Greeke
churche very wel learned, and very eloquent’ (sig. A2r ). The influence of
the Greek Christian epigrammatists was thus mediated for Drant through
German poets, which is symptomatic of the pan-European literary culture
of epigrams. However, Drant is a very early example of this awareness
in England.18 These precedents became most important and influential
in the scholarlycircles of Cambridge and Oxford in the 1620s and 1630s
after such scholars as Isaac Casaubon and Thomas Farnaby had furthered
English familiarity with the Anthology. James Duport, a