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Audrey Cruse

In ancient Greece and Rome magical and religious healing continued to be practised at the same time as a burgeoning of research and learning in the natural sciences was promoting a seemingly more rational and scientific approach to medicine. Was there, then, a dichotomy in medical treatment or was the situation more complex? This paper draws on historical textual sources as well as archaeological research in examining the question in more detail. Some early texts, such as the Egyptian papyri from about 2,600 bc and the Hippocratic Corpus from the third and fourth centuries bc, contain an intriguing mixture of scientific and religious material. Archaeological evidence from, for example, sites of healing sanctuaries from ancient times, show medical prescriptions used as part of votive offerings and religious inscriptions on surgical instruments, while physicians were prominent among donators to shrines. Other archaeological finds such as the contents of rubbish tips, buried hoards, sepulchral deposits and stray artefacts from occupation levels, have also added to the archive of medical material available for discussion. The paper concludes that such intertwinings of religion and science were not only common in Roman medicine but, in fact, continue into the present time.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library

Britain's Chief Rabbis were attempting to respond to the new religious climate, and deployed a variety of tactics to achieve their aims. This book presents a radical new interpretation of Britain's Chief Rabbis from Nathan Adler to Immanuel Jakobovits. It examines the theologies of the Chief Rabbis and seeks to reveal and explain their impact on the religious life of Anglo-Jewry. The book begins with the study of Nathan Marcus Adler, Chief Rabbi from 1845, and it then explores how in 1880 Hermann Adler became Delegate Chief Rabbi on his father's semi-retirement to Brighton. In the pre-modern era, and for a while after, rabbis saw themselves and were seen as the heirs of the rabbinic tradition, whose role first and foremost was to rule on matters of religious law. The book argues that the Chief Rabbis' response to modernity should be viewed in the context of Jewish religious responses that emerged following the Enlightenment and Emancipation. It sketches out a possible typology of those responses, so that Chief Rabbis can be placed in that context. Chief Rabbis were members of the acknowledgement school, which contained a number of different theological currents: romantic, scientific, aesthetic and nostalgic. Hermann Adler was the Chief Rabbi during his time, and his religious policies were to a great extent motivated by his religious ideas. Joseph Herman Hertz's theology placed him in the traditional group within the acknowledgement school, although he was influenced by its scientific, romantic and aesthetic branches.

The meaning of Shils
Thomas Schneider

). My argument will unfold in three steps. First, I will follow the suggestion of one of the editors of this collection, that ‘Edward Shils was a widely recognized but misunderstood thinker’ (Turner, 1999: 125), while exploring some of the reasons for this misunderstanding. Second, and in contrast to the main lines of misunderstanding of his writings, I will suggest reading Shils from a specific standpoint, which one might call a human scientific approach. It will be shown that, paradoxically, although his writings circled around a phenomenon, still of significance

in The calling of social thought
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Scientific experimentation in George MacDonald’s ‘The History of Photogen and Nycteris’
Rebecca Langworthy

know everything’ (p. 304). In this opening line a number of expectations are developed. Three aspects of Watho are revealed. Firstly, she is a witch, and as such is a representative of a system of magic, which has two aspects: it ‘rests on empirically untested belief and … it is an effort to control. The first aspect distinguishes it from science, the second from religion.’  7 Watho, as a witch, is engaged in a practice which is distinct from both religious and scientific approaches of interpreting the world. Secondly

in In the company of wolves
J. Walter Thompson, advertising and Anglo-American relations
Sean Nixon

homely epithet, the ‘Thompson way’. JWT’s senior managers had, from the early decades of the century, sought to codify a coherent and consistent approach to advertising and to set in place mechanisms across its national and international network of offices to ensure a consistency of service. JWT’s reputation in the USA from the 1920s had been founded upon a ‘scientific approach’ to its clients’ needs. The principles that informed this approach were documented in Thompson’s ‘Blue Book’, at the heart of which was the T-square – the central marketing tool used to codify

in Hard sell
Kate Bradley

between the ‘deserving’ and ‘undeserving’ poor was part of the operations of the Poor Law and, from the 1870s, also entered the language of 20 Making f ree legal aid welfare and voluntary action through the ‘efficient’ and ‘scientificapproaches of the COS. Whilst the New Poor Law continued until its abolition in 1948, the Liberal Governments’ introduction of National Insurance in 1911 created a rules-based system for unemployment and sickness and a means-tested old age pension, effectively sealing the shift away from discretion at local level to the enforcement of

in Lawyers for the poor
African Americans and white atheists
Nathan G. Alexander

This chapter examines white atheists’ views of African Americans. Freethought newspapers often contained one-dimensional caricatures of black people as pious, superstitious, foolish, and immoral. These were the opposites of the traits on which white freethinkers prized themselves, and therefore the image of black Americans often acted as a mirror in which white freethinkers could clarify their own identities. Despite these negative depictions, however, on the whole white atheists attempted to portray themselves as free from racial prejudice and argued for equal rights and opportunities for all regardless of race. Yet not all white atheists held such optimistic views. An alternative discourse within freethought circles held that a rational and scientific approach showed the innate inferiority of blacks. This chapter wrestles once more with the competing demands of scientific rationalism, hostility to Christianity, and a commitment to equality that helped to inform white atheists’ racial views.

in Race in a Godless World
Astronomical tropes in Þragbysig (R.4)
Jennifer Neville

Þragbysig is one of the most resistant of the Exeter Book collection to being solved, and it has thus received more than its fair share of solutions (fifteen, by the author’s count). These solutions have ranged from the inanimate to the animate, from the homely to the exotic, from the physical to the spiritual, and from the plausible to the implausible. This chapter seeks first to pinpoint where previous solutions have failed, so as to identify the key ambiguous language and the riddling tropes that a successful solution must address. These include the relationship between the subject of the riddle, the thegn, and the lord; the multiple rings; the breaking of the bed; the ‘warm limb’; the idea of speaking and answering; and the foolishness of the thegn. It then suggests that a learned, scientific approach to the physical world—in particular astronomy—provides a different way of understanding the text’s intractable metaphorical surface. Drawing upon Bede, Boethius, and Isidore, the chapter argues that Þragbysig is a description of a winter sun, rising over the horizon accompanied by the planet Mercury.

in Riddles at work in the early medieval tradition
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A. J. Coates

Germany in the Second World 56 Images of war War: ‘You couldn’t afford to think too much about civilians . . . you can’t afford to let your mind dwell on casualties in war, whether they are the enemies or those of your own unit. Doubt, as well as fear, is something you have to hold at bay’ (Cheshire 1991, p. 52).  9 See Graves 1960, p. 112. 10 The ‘theoretical-­scientific approach is exemplified in the work of ‘neo-­realists’ like Herz and Waltz (see Herz 1976 and Waltz 1979), while in the opinion of some commentators Machiavelli exemplifies the ‘practical-­scientific

in The ethics of war
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Kate Bradley

New Poor Laws allowed for discretionary decisionmaking by officials at the local level and also for an epistolary culture in which paupers and their (non-lawyer) advocates could make a case for differential treatment. The emergence of demands for rigorous, planned and ‘scientificapproaches to organising welfare from the 1870s led first to calls for stricter administration of the Poor Law, then to an increase in protective and preventative legislation, and then to the introduction of rules-based welfare under the Liberal Governments of 1906–14. This also coincided

in Lawyers for the poor