Entomology, botany and the early ethnographic monograph in the work of H.-A. Junod
This chapter examines the ways in which the methodology of entomology and botany influenced the beginnings of anthropology in southern Africa. It determines how the form, content and authority of the early ethnographic monograph was shaped and contained by the conventions of writing and analysis of the natural sciences. The chapter also examines how the skills of observation developed by field naturalists in Switzerland were transferred to the new discipline of anthropology. It shows how Henri-Alexandre Junod employed the methods of the natural sciences to represent and explain African society. During his first furlough in Switzerland Junod worked through his entomological collections and co-authored a series of articles with European experts. In Neuchatel the growth of the Natural History Museum had traditionally depended on the generosity of the town's many traders, missionaries, mercenaries and travellers living abroad.
The history and sociology of science has not been well developed in southern Africa as compared to India, Australia or Latin America. This book deals with case studies drawn from South Africa, Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia), Mozambique and Mauritius, and examines the relationship between scientific claims and practices, and the exercise of colonial power. European intellectuals saw in Africa images of their own prehistory and societal development. The book reveals the work of the Swiss naturalist and anthropologist Henri Junod. The relative status of Franco-Mauritian, Creoles and Indo-Mauritian peasants was an important factor in gaining knowledge of and access to canes. After the Boer War, science was one of the regenerating forces, and the British Association found it appropriate to hold its 1905 meetings in the Southern African subcontinent. White farmers in the Cape Colony in the late nineteenth century often greeted with suspicion the enumeration of livestock and crop. The book focuses on the connections between the apartheid state's capacity to count and to control. Apartheid statecraft included aspirations of totalising modes of racialised knowledge. Included in the theme of state rationality and techniques of domination is the specialized use of dogs by police in apprehending black alleged criminals. The book discusses the Race Welfare Society, which turned to eugenics for a blueprint on how to cultivate a healthy and productive white population. However, George Gale and Sidney and Emily Kark advocated socialised medicine, and had a genuine desire to promote the broad health needs of Africans.
Controversies regarding epistemic wagers in climate-economy
social process of establishing what constitutes valid and robust
knowledge within a specific community of practice.1 The community
of practice in this case pertains to the scientificfield of climate
economics,2 a subfield of economics that deals with the potential
effects of climate change understood in economic terms and the
potential costs and benefits of various measures geared to mitigating
that change. It focuses on various policy measures undertaken to
reduce the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), and specifically
the most common (albeit not most potent) of
US aid and the creation of an Irish
scientific research infrastructure
This chapter broadens out the focus from Irish sociology to examine Irish
scientific research. Its central theme is the way in which resources provided
or jointly controlled by US actors underpinned the development of a modern scientific research infrastructure within the state in the period after the
Second World War. The scientificfields principally affected by these financial injections were applied research related to agriculture, industry and
economics. Money flowed
This chapter looks at two additional sides of knowledge, sides that partly fall within ‘strategic ignorance’. The first is to resist knowledge when it carries with it a moral and social responsibility. This includes knowledge about genetically carried diseases of ourselves or others, or practical information on how we could do more to reduce the suffering of others, for instance in the developing world. The second side is to resist knowledge when ignorance opens up opportunities that would have been difficult if you knew ‘too much’. Convincing others – and yourself – that you are ignorant about specific occurrences can in some cases be of great value. These include certain innovative environments and even scientific fields where ‘fresh thinkers’ and ‘blank slates’ may sometimes be seen as increasing the chances of thinking outside the box. The chapter also shows three different ways of ignoring knowledge strategically, often in organisational settings: deny, dismiss, and divert. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion about how to assess and distinguish harmful versus beneficial knowledge resistance.
editions of their
periodicals. But neither had they expected the transformation of universities into the centers of the scientificfield in the second half of the
Medical societies and scientific culture
century, the strong affiliation societies would seek to these institutions
or the gradual demise of their arbitrational role that resulted from these
processes. To understand this trajectory, I have placed the history of
medical societies within the wider framework of the relation between
science and civil society. Urban medical societies, this book has shown
political consequences. Along the way, it also
renders epistemology a scientificfield that discusses the political character of
The following chapters explore the concept of dialectics as the negation
of the irrational and, furthermore, as the open field of epistemological conflict between rationality and irrationality. Throughout the chapters, my view
of what constitutes scientific dialectics is condensed into the following five
theses, which are not hierarchically ordered:
1. Dialectics constitutes a process of exchange of arguments, which are
This book is about science in theatre and performance. It explores how theatre and performance engage with emerging scientific themes from artificial intelligence to genetics and climate change. The book covers a wide range of performance forms from the spectacle of the Paralympics Opening Ceremony to Broadway musicals, from experimental contemporary performance and opera to educational theatre, Somali poetic drama and grime videos. It features work by pioneering companies including Gob Squad, Headlong Theatre and Theatre of Debate as well as offering fresh analysis of global blockbusters such as Wicked and Urinetown. The book offers detailed description and analysis of theatre and performance practices as well as broader commentary on the politics of theatre as public engagement with science. It documents important examples of collaborative practice with extended discussion of the Theatre of Debate process developed by Y Touring theatre company, exploration of bilingual theatre-making in East London and an account of how grime MCs and dermatologists ended up making a film together in Birmingham. The interdisciplinary approach draws on contemporary research in theatre and performance studies in combination with key ideas from science studies. It shows how theatre can offer important perspectives on what the philosopher of science Isabelle Stengers has called ‘cosmopolitics’. The book argues that theatre can flatten knowledge hierarchies and hold together different ways of knowing.
This collection explores how concepts of intellectual or learning disability evolved from a range of influences, gradually developing from earlier and decidedly distinct concepts, including ‘idiocy’ and ‘folly’, which were themselves generated by very specific social and intellectual environments. With essays extending across legal, educational, literary, religious, philosophical, and psychiatric histories, this collection maintains a rigorous distinction between historical and contemporary concepts in demonstrating how intellectual disability and related notions were products of the prevailing social, cultural, and intellectual environments in which they took form, and themselves performed important functions within these environments. Focusing on British and European material from the middle ages to the late nineteenth century, this collection asks ‘How and why did these concepts form?’ ‘How did they connect with one another?’ and ‘What historical circumstances contributed to building these connections?’ While the emphasis is on conceptual history or a history of ideas, these essays also address the consequences of these defining forces for the people who found themselves enclosed by the shifting definitional field.
This book explores for the first time women’s leading roles in animal protection in nineteenth-century Britain. Victorian women founded pioneering bodies such as the Battersea Dogs’ Home, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, and the first anti-vivisection society. They intervened directly to stop abuses, promoted animal welfare, and schooled the young in humane values via the Band of Mercy movement. They also published literature that, through strongly argued polemic or through imaginative storytelling, notably in Anna Sewell’s Black Beauty, showed man’s unjustifiable cruelty to animals. In all these enterprises, they encountered opponents who sought to discredit and thwart their efforts by invoking age-old notions of female ‘sentimentality’ or ‘hysteria’, which supposedly needed to be checked by ‘masculine’ pragmatism, rationality and broadmindedness, especially where men’s field sports were concerned. To counter any public perception of extremism, conservative bodies such as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals for long excluded women from executive roles, despite their crucial importance as donors and grassroots activists. However, women’s growing opportunities for public work in philanthropic projects and the development of militant feminism, running in parallel with campaigns for the vote, gave them greater boldness in expressing their distinctive view of animal–human relations, in defiance of patriarchy. In analysing all these historic factors, the book unites feminist perspectives, especially constructions of gender, with the fast-developing field of animal–human history.