Open Access (free)
The reception of Christianity not mysterious, 1696–1702
Justin Champion

Reading scripture 3 . Reading Scripture: the reception of Christianity not mysterious, 1696–1702 religion ... it is more easy to guess what he was not, than to tell what ‘A heforwas. ’Tis certain, he was neither Jew nor Mahometan: But whether he S was a Christian, a Deist, a Pantheist, an Hobbist, or a Spinozist, is the Question’.1 Toland’s writings had ‘alarm’d all sober well-meaning Christians, and set the whole clergy against him’. Having explored how Toland lived and worked in a world of libraries and books, it is time to examine how his books worked in

in Republican learning
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Stephen Penn

Wyclif devoted many years of his life to the intensive study of Scripture, beginning formally with exegetical lectures that survive as a sequence of postils (probably written between 1371 and 1376), now collectively known as Postils on the Whole of the Bible , a unique and extensive commentary that won Wyclif considerable respect as an exegete. 1 In these, we witness his meticulous defence of the authority of scripture, and of the literal veracity of all of its parts. This is developed further in On the Truth of Holy Scripture (1377

in John Wyclif
The moral life and the state
Jeff Rosen

2 Jowett’s scriptures: the moral life and the state Theological questions on the Isle of Wight On 31 December 1864, Julia Margaret Cameron sent her friend Sir John Herschel a gift of photographs and a letter informing him about a turning point in her creative life. After a year spent experimenting with different subjects, she seized upon the goal of pursuing a religious iconography in photography. The following declaration accompanied her post: ‘Yesterday I dispatched for you & dear Lady Herschel one series of my Photographs which form I think now a theological

in Julia Margaret Cameron’s ‘fancy subjects’
Cathy Shrank

drama: first, under what Vincent Gillespie has called the ‘long shadow’ cast by Archbishop Arundel's Constitutions (1409), which placed strict limits on vernacular translations of scripture; secondly, in response to the various phases of the English Reformation, in the light of the onus that Reformers placed both on the Bible – rather than the Church – as the source of religious authority, and on worship in the vernacular, not (as previously) in Latin. 3 ‘Moralities’ have been selected for this study because they are

in Enacting the Bible in medieval and early modern drama
David J. Appleby

Black Bartholomew’s Day Chapter 3 Scripture, historicism and the critique of authority C iting Matthew 10:16 in his afternoon farewell sermon at St Stephen’s Walbrook on August 17 – ‘Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves; be ye therefore wise as serpents and harmless as doves’ – Thomas Watson advised the godly to join the serpent with the dove.1 The Nottinghamshire minister William Cross assured his Beeston congregation that God was able to ‘give the wisdom of the Serpent to such as have the Doves Innocency’.2 The succeeding verses of

in Black Bartholomew’s Day
Framing biblical emotions in the Book of Common Prayer and the Homilies
David Bagchi

out to impose a ‘script’ upon their audience and readership. The script they intended to be so inscribed was not, however, a liturgy or even a sermon, but Holy Scripture itself. And, to describe this process, they chose an image more technologically up to date than one drawn from a scribal age, as is apparent from the very first homily

in The Renaissance of emotion
Robert Oscar Lopez

I will read John Winthrop‘s Model of Christian Charity against and through Edgar Allan Poe‘s poem ‘The City in the Sea’. Winthrop and Poe both localize a ‘city’ to represent an extreme form of society. The koine Greek of Matthew 5 uses the word polis to describe a ‘city on a hill’. Christ says this city must not be hidden, but rather should shine so that the world may see it. The New Testament‘s merging of ‘politics’ and ‘city’ in the word polis makes it unsurprising that many Anglophone writers invoke ‘city’ in a title or phrase when making political innuendoes. Winthrop was a devotee of scripture, and Poe knew Greek, so their allusions to a representative human city are fraught with cultural meaning. To contextualize and compare their particular evocations of the city metaphor, I incorporate the theories of Edward Said and present cross-references to Eugène Delacroix, the prophecies of Ezekiel, and Shelley‘s poem ‘Ozymandias’. The Holy Land is at once fixed in the exotic Middle East yet necessary for America‘s quotidian social mores. Winthrop and Poe romanticize, appropriate, and exploit Middle Eastern symbolism. The interesting twist, however, is that Poe Orientalizes Winthrop‘s city on a hill, and in so doing, he Orientalizes Winthrop, and perhaps America‘s own religious fanaticism.

Gothic Studies
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Selected Latin works in translation
Author: Stephen Penn

John Wyclif (d. 1384) was among the leading schoolmen of fourteenth-century Europe. He was an outspoken controversialist and critic of the church, and, in his last days at Oxford, the author of the greatest heresy that England had known. This volume offers translations of a representative selection of his Latin writings on theology, the church and the Christian life. It offers a comprehensive view of the life of this charismatic but irascible medieval theologian, and of the development of the most prominent dissenting mind in pre-Reformation England. This collection will be of interest to undergraduate and graduate students of medieval history, historical theology and religious heresy, as well as scholars in the field.

Stephen Penn

earliest and its most powerful expression. In Eradicating Errors Concerning Universals in General , he offers a defence of his metaphysical system and answers common objections to his stance on universals ( 1 ). It was not until he composed his definitive treatise on the topic shortly afterwards, however, that he offered a formal typology of universals ( 2 ). Despite its apparent simplicity, this five-part scheme would prove to play a fundamental role in Wyclif’s metaphysical system, and is also partially replicated in his fivefold conception of Scripture ( 7i

in John Wyclif
Lucy Hutchinson and the classicisation of scripture
Edward Paleit

Chapter 1 Women’s poetry and classical authors: Lucy Hutchinson and the classicisation of scripture Edward Paleit Introduction: the distant muses – early modern women poets and classical antiquity E arly modern women poets’ search for cultural authority and poetic  voice involved a vexed, sometimes contradictory relationship to literary models (as Sarah Ross and Line Cottegnies explore further in chapters 2 and 3). Classical poetry was especially awkward for women writers to accommodate and imitate, for a variety of social and cultural reasons. Greek and

in Early modern women and the poem