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6 Second-order elections The concept of ‘second-orderelections So far, this book has concentrated on Bundestag elections. Bundestag elections decide the party composition of the Bundestag, and thus the range of potential coalitions which can be formed to govern Germany. However, other elections may have political significance: the election of the federal president; the election of local councils; elections to the EP; and Land elections. Since the election of the federal president is an indirect election, influenced strongly by the outcome of elections to the

in German electoral politics

The study of German electoral politics has been neglected of late, despite being one of the most pervasive elements of the German political process. This book argues that concentration on electoral politics facilitates deeper understanding and appreciation of the German political system. It provides explanations and analysis of the federal electoral system, its evolution and the challenges that have been made to its format; discusses the role of electoral politics in relation to political parties and to the public; and the influence of second-order elections in the German political system. The book goes on to evaluate the effectiveness of the German electoral system in relation to its functions, and challenges the premise that electoral politics makes a difference in Germany. Ultimately, it aims to reconcile the apparently limited role that elections have in determining the composition of governments with the notion that there is a ‘permanent election campaign’ in existence in German politics.

of the electoral system and the outcome of the election. Chapter 6 moves from a focus on Bundestag elections to an analysis of ‘second-orderelections (though that description itself requires discussion): the elections to local councils, to the European Parliament (EP) and to Land legislatures. Attention is focused on the inter-relationships between Bundestag elections and these ‘second-orderelections, to highlight the important differences in the various electoral systems used (all are varieties of a proportional representation system), and to consider the

in German electoral politics

Saint-Josse’s Chasse Pêche Nature Traditions (CPNT) fit Stress and stability 15 this category. These movements testify to the importance of ‘flexible specialisation’ (Kitschelt, 1997) as issue-specific parties rise and fall to exploit the contradictions of broader-based structures. These marginal parties invariably define themselves as being against the parties of the political establishment and perform better in ‘second-orderelections fought under proportional representation (regional elections, European elections) than in the decisive parliamentary or

in The French party system
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A comparative perspective

.93 when mail ballot participation was regressed on polling place participation’ (ibid., 84). In other M801 QVORTRUP TEXT MAKE-UP.qxd 5/4/07 1:42 PM Page 155 Gary Gary's G4:Users:Gary:Public:Gar Absentee voting 155 words, it is not postal voting itself that is responsible for a higher turnout! With regard to second-order elections, Southwell and Burchett enthusiastically declared: After controlling for the nature of the race, all[-]mail elections increased registered voter turnout by 10% over the expected turnout in a traditional polling place election. These

in The politics of participation
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The politics of Troika Ireland

not been completely obliterated showed that the 162 Electoral competition in Ireland since 1987 ties that bound citizens to established political parties had not been completely eradicated. In fact Fianna Fáil would resurrect itself within two years by winning the most seats in the 2014 local elections and receiving the largest number of votes cast, with some quarter of the voting public, over 430,000 people, casting their ballots for the party that had presided over the greatest calamity to hit the Irish state since it won its independence. Yes, it was a second-order

in Electoral competition in Ireland since 1987

national fields? German political scientists Karlheinz Reif and Hermann Schmitt have presented the most influential interpretation of the role of European elections to date (Reif 1997; Reif and Schmitt 1980). According to this interpretation, elections to the European Parliament are second-order elections as compared to national elections. These second-order elections have the following characteristics: 1 2 3 4 Politically there is less at stake in these elections than in other national elections. Second-order elections are protest elections, which explain the high

in Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union
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; Hale 2005; Moser 1999) and the Czech and Polish senates (Ehin et al. 2013). Independent candidates have also been elected to the European Parliament from Hungary, Romania and, in particular, Estonia, where Indrek Tarand was elected with 26 per cent of the national vote in 2009 and 13 per cent in 2014 (Ehin and Solvak 2012). Success in such second-order elections is not unusual for independents. Independent presidents, mayors and governors are not uncommon. This prevalence at the lower levels of government happens for a number of reasons. The first is that there is no

in Independents in Irish party democracy

unhappy with politicians, he suggests, they are likely to vote against what politicians propose, when they all propose the same option. Referendums are even sometimes referred to as second-​order elections, which means that their outcome may not only be influenced by the subject that voters are deciding on, but also by how they feel about those in power in the national political arena, the record of the current government, or issues and events which are not directly related to the referendum itself (Heath and Taylor, 1999; LeDuc, 2015). Clearly the 2014 Scottish

in Framing referendum campaigns in the news

Parliament elections across the EU; and (b) the absence of a single European political space, and the linked failure of European Parliament elections to turn on European issues and go beyond 84 84 National parliaments in the European Union mere second-​order elections on national issues. However (c) structural reasons also seem to impede complete reliance on the European Parliament. Unlike in a parliamentary democracy, the European Parliament does not appoint the executive.16 Further, although the European Parliament enjoys a veto over legislation under the ordinary

in The evolving role of national parliaments in the European Union