Prior to the Civil Wars the secret intelligence activities of the English state had already begun to orientate themselves around the office of the secretary of state. In the English context at least, this office had emerged from a varied administrative background of royal courts and councils, closets and keepers of royal business secrets, becoming a secretary who, at first, mainly acted as the monarch’s own private servant. Throughout the seventeenth century this office was to retain some of these older
3 The Secretary of State and the Northern Ireland ministers Prior to direct rule the minister in the British Government responsible for Northern Ireland was the Home Secretary. Until 1968 this had been a less than onerous part of the Home Secretary’s job but the workload increased substantially with the growing intervention by the British Government between 1969 and 1972. With direct rule the transfer of all legislative and executive powers would have imposed too much of an extra burden on a Home Secretary and the wide range of ministerial duties justified a
This essay focuses upon the controversy surrounding Lord George Townshends appointment as Irish viceroy in 1767. He was the first viceroy to be made constantly resident and therefore it was a shift that could be seen as part of a process of imperial centralization, akin to assertive British policy-making for the American colonies and India. Up until this point there has been some doubt as to whether Townshend himself or the British Government was the prime mover behind this key decision. This article uses the Caldwell-Shelburne correspondence in the John Rylands Library,to shed further light on this policy-making process, as well as commenting on the importance of Sir James Caldwell, landowner, hack writer and place-hunter extraordinaire, and the Earl of Shelburne, Irish-born Secretary of State and later Prime Minister, and reflecting on the historiography,of the Townshend administration and Anglo-Irish relations more generally.
This book considers in detail the culture and language of plots, conspiracies and intrigues and exposes how the intelligence activities of the Three Kingdoms of the 1640s began to be situated within early modern government from the Civil Wars to the rule of Oliver Cromwell in the 1650s. It also introduces the reader to some of the personalities who were caught up in this contemporary intelligence and espionage world from the intelligencers, especially Thomas Scot and John Thurloe, to the men and women who became its secret agents and spies. The book includes accounts of espionage activities not just in England but also in Ireland and Scotland, and it especially investigates intelligence and espionage during the critical periods of the British Civil Wars and the important developments which took place under the English Republic and Oliver Cromwell in the 1650s.
role has diminished over the past decade, as they have been at least partially displaced by so-called socially responsible corporations and ‘philanthrocapitalism’ à la Bill and Melinda Gates, which increasingly are presented (and, of course, present themselves) as indispensable to any successful effort to combat poverty, hunger and disease in the poor world. 2 Even so, the moral warrant that NGOs provide for the great Western powers is still viewed in Washington, Brussels and elsewhere as being of value. A US Secretary of State might not, today, go
excuse myself. I think Brazil should have been more present in Haiti at this moment. It was after the earthquake [of January 2011]. The US played a bigger role, particularly through the Clinton Foundation. Bill Clinton was like a viceroy. Imagine! He was the husband of the US Secretary of State, he was a former president and he had been named as the UN Secretary-General’s special envoy to Haiti. He had immense power. This reduced the role of Brazil somewhat, too. I think we did the right thing in Haiti overall. It isn’t possible to resolve Haiti
continuing basis as their second-in-command. Those chosen for the role have been given the title of deputy prime minister, appointed first secretary of state, or simply served de facto as deputy prime minister, but without being formally styled as such. At other times, the prime minister has done without selecting anyone to fulfil the role, selecting a cabinet colleague on an ad hoc basis to fill in for them, for example at prime minister’s question time, when they are abroad. Deputy prime minister The first time a senior minister was given the title of deputy prime
calculating Northern Ireland’s attributed share of taxation is given in Table 8.2. The Consolidated Fund for Northern Ireland is the account into which the attributed share taxes and other non tax receipts were paid plus a grant-in-aid from the UK Government, to meet the difference between income and expenditure. UK subvention to Northern Ireland The most important change with direct rule was the abolition of almost all the special arrangements for giving financial assistance and their replacement with a general grant-in-aid from the Secretary of State to the Northern
At the Imperial Conference of 1911, Secretary of State for India Lord Crewe addressed the prime ministers of the white-settler dominions gathered in London. His concern was legislation in their countries that either prevented Indians from entering their territories, discriminated against them while they were there, or both. He reminded these prime ministers
new UK government department led by the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland. As well as having responsibility for political and constitutional affairs the Northern Ireland Office became directly responsible for security policy and the administration of the police, prisons and courts, which were transferred from the old Stormont Ministry of Home Affairs. The other Northern Ireland Government departments remained separate from the Northern Ireland Office although they had to develop a new relationship with it. The Northern Ireland Office The Northern Ireland