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The European Union and its member states

This book takes up traditional approaches to political science. It aims to offer a mixture of conventional and specific analyses and insights for different groups of readers. In view of the European Union's multi-level and multi-actor polity, the book highlights the complex procedural and institutional set-up of nation states preparing and implementing decisions made by the institutions of the European Community (EC). In looking at the emerging and evolving realities of the European polity, it shows how European institutions and Member States (re-)act and interact in a new institutional and procedural set-up. It explores how governmental and non-governmental actors in different national settings adapt to common challenges, constraints and opportunities for which they are mainly themselves responsible. The book discusses the Belgian policy toward European integration as a significant demonstration of its commitment to multilateralism and international co-operation in security and economic affairs. Attitudes to European integration in Denmark, Germany, Finland, Greece, and Spain are discussed. Tendencies towards 'Europeanisation' and 'sectoralisation' of the ministerial administration during the process of European integration and the typical administrative pluralism of the Italian political system seem to have mutually reinforced each other. Strong multi-level players are able to increase their access and influence at both levels and to use their position on one level for strengthening their say on the other. German and Belgian regions might develop into these kinds of actors. A persistent trend during the 1990s is traced towards stronger national performers, particularly in terms of adaptations and reactions to Maastricht Treaty.

Alistair Cole

minister and Josselin de Rohan, head of the RPR group in the French Senate. All of these Presidents practised cumul des mandats; each of them relied heavily on the permanent administration to steer the regional ship and each of them spent more time in Paris than in Brittany. The first Socialist President, Jean-Yves Le Drian, was much closer to Breton cultural networks. Even Le Drian practised cumul des mandats, however, combining the presdiency of the regional council with being mayor of Lorient. Vice-Presidents and policy sectoralisation The first meeting of the

in Beyond devolution and decentralisation
Actors, institutional adaptation and implementation
Bernadette Connaughton

characteristics of the Irish political-administrative system have impacted on policy responsiveness, administrative capacity and relationships with stakeholders. Irish public administration's features of centralisation and departmental sectoralisation influence adaptation and challenges for the environmental policy field, which in turn prescribes and requires horizontal coordination and integration. The Ministers and Secretaries Acts 1924–2013, Civil Service Regulation Acts 1956–2005 and the Public Service Management Act 1997 provide for the formal

in The implementation of environmental policy in Ireland
Open Access (free)
Progress behind complexity
Flaminia Gallo
Birgit Hanny

still shows a strongly fragmented access for different ministerial units to the European level. Many such units have direct contacts with their Brussels counterparts and quite often ignore the formal competencies of co-ordinating bodies at the national level, thus permitting sectoral interests to reach the Brussels arena.40 Therefore, tendencies towards ‘Europeanisation’ and ‘sectoralisation’ of the ministerial administration during the process of European integration and the typical administrative pluralism of the Italian political system seem to have mutually

in Fifteen into one?
Bernadette Connaughton

by the anticipation that by and large existing structures would incorporate new responsibilities. The Irish experience therefore conformed to a general analysis that EU policy-making reinforces trends towards departmentalism and sectoralisation in national administrations (Page and Wouters, 1995: 213). Given the small number of officials involved in decision-making a position could be reached relatively quickly and assembled coherently. However, the Irish system of departmental autonomy may have led to individual departments guarding their specific policy domains

in Europeanisation and new patterns of governance in Ireland
Parliamentary, presidential or prime ministerial?
David Arter

sectoralisation of the work of the Nordic governments. Ministers are largely left to develop policy within their particular area of ­responsibility, ministers and the prime minister increasingly engage in bilateral discussions (the prime minister–finance minister axis is crucial) and the effective deliberation takes place within cabinet committees and informal working groups. Full cabinet meetings have become short, increasingly ritualistic and devoid of real debate. As Jørgen Grønnegard Christensen noted almost a quarter of a century ago, ‘like the cabinets in Denmark

in Scandinavian politics today