The European Union (EU) has emerged as an important security actor qua actor, not only in the non-traditional areas of security, but increasingly as an entity with force projection capabilities. This book investigates how the concept of security relates to or deals with different categories of threat, explores the relationship between forms of coordination among states, international institutions, and the provision of European security and the execution of security governance. It also investigates whether the EU has been effective in realising its stated security objectives and those of its member states. The book commences with a discussion on the changing nature of the European state, the changing nature and broadening of the security agenda, and the problem of security governance in the European political space. There are four functional challenges facing the EU as a security actor: the resolution of interstate conflicts, the management of intrastate conflicts, state-building endeavours, and building the institutions of civil society. The book then examines policies of prevention, particularly the pre-emption of conflict within Europe and its neighbourhood. It moves on to examine policies of assurance, particularly the problem of peace-building in south-eastern Europe. EU's peace-building or sustaining role where there has been a violent interstate or intrastate conflict, especially the origins and performance of the Stability Pact, is discussed. Finally, the book looks at the policies of protection which capture the challenge of internal security.
new threats, institutional adaptations
Halford Mackinder developed the geostrategic formulation recognising that
international politics encompasses the globe. His simple formulation, which
guided early twentieth-century policy-makers and theorists in North
America and continental Europe alike, held that the state that controls the
Eurasian heartland controls the periphery, and the state that controls the
periphery controls the world.1 More so than in the first decade of
core characteristic of regulated peace. These the chapter considers as a
form of ‘securitygovernance’ at the international level and
governance of this type is evidenced by reference to the categories of
region, institutionalisation and compliance. These categories help in
delineating relations of governance within the security community itself
and, equally, help to conceptualise the ‘fuzzy’ boundary
How inclusive are the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and the European Union (EU)? The enlargement of both organisations seems to give some substance to the vision of a ‘Europe whole and free’ articulated at the Cold War's end. Yet more recently, enlargement's limits have increasingly come to be recognised, bringing an important debate on the balance to be struck between inclusion and exclusion. This book examines that sometimes awkward balance. Its analytical starting point is the characterisation of much of Europe as a security community managed by a system of security governance. The boundary of this system is neither clear nor fixed, but a dynamic of inclusion and exclusion can be said to exist by reference to its most concrete expression—that of institutional enlargement. On this basis, the book offers an elaboration of the concept of security governance itself, complemented by a historical survey of the Cold War and its end, the post-Cold War development of NATO and the EU, and case studies of two important ‘excluded’ states: Russia and Turkey.
The Law and Politics of Responding to Attacks against Aid Workers
Julia Brooks and Rob Grace
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232 – 43 .
Schneiker , A. ( 2015 ), Humanitarian NGOs, (In)Security and Identity: Epistemic Communities and SecurityGovernance ( New York : Routledge ).
Stoddard , A. , Harmer , A. and Hughes , M. ( 2012 ), Host States and Their Impact on Security for Humanitarian Operations
Stoddard , A. , Harmer , A. and Czwarno , M. ( 2017 ), Behind the Attacks: A Look at the Perpetrators of Violence
Eurasian security governance has received increasing attention since 1989. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, the institution that best served the security interests of the West in its competition with the Soviet Union, is now relatively ill-equipped resolve the threats emanating from Eurasia to the Atlantic system of security governance. This book investigates the important role played by identity politics in the shaping of the Eurasian security environment. It investigates both the state in post-Soviet Eurasia as the primary site of institutionalisation and the state's concerted international action in the sphere of security. This investigation requires a major caveat: state-centric approaches to security impose analytical costs by obscuring substate and transnational actors and processes. The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon marked the maturation of what had been described as the 'new terrorism'. Jervis has argued that the western system of security governance produced a security community that was contingent upon five necessary and sufficient conditions. The United States has made an effort to integrate China, Russia into the Atlantic security system via the Partnership for Peace (PfP) programme and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council. The Black Sea Economic Cooperation has become engaged in disseminating security concerns in fields such as environment, energy and economy. If the end of the Cold War left America triumphant, Russia's new geopolitical hand seemed a terrible demotion. Successfully rebalancing the West and building a collaborative system with Russia, China, Europe and America probably requires more wisdom and skill from the world's leaders.
This study explores the normative dimension of the evolving role of the United Nations in peace and security and, ultimately, in governance. What is dealt with here is both the UN's changing raison d'être and the wider normative context within which the organisation is located. The study looks at the UN through the window of one of its most contentious, yet least understood, practices: active involvement in intra-state conflicts as epitomised by UN peacekeeping. Drawing on the conceptual tools provided by the ‘historical structural’ approach, it seeks to understand how and why the international community continuously reinterprets or redefines the UN's role with regard to such conflicts. The study concentrates on intra-state ‘peacekeeping environments’, and examines what changes, if any, have occurred to the normative basis of UN peacekeeping in intra-state conflicts from the early 1960s to the early 1990s. One of the original aspects of the study is its analytical framework, where the conceptualisation of ‘normative basis’ revolves around objectives, functions and authority, and is closely connected with the institutionalised values in the UN Charter such as state sovereignty, human rights and socio-economic development.
the adaptation and enlargement of the EU and NATO. These bodies do not
represent the totality of Europe’s securitygovernance nor are
they the sole expression of the broader phenomenon of a European
security community. Yet they are, without doubt, among its most
important defining features, to which there is now ‘no serious
revisionist challenge’. 1 Such a view has guided the analysis of this book
Is Russia part of the European
security community? What is its relationship to the structures of
European securitygovernance? Partial answers to these questions were
given in Chapter 3 . There it was suggested that
Russia occupies an ambiguous position – related to but not fully
part of this community or its system of governance. This chapter
elaborates this theme in
unprecedented degree. This chapter examines India’s role
as a regional security provider by looking into four categories of securitygovernance (assurance, prevention, protection, and compellence). It argues
that India’s role as a regional security provider will remain circumscribed by
the peculiar regional constraints India faces.
Threats and security policy
The rapidly evolving security environment facing India continues to pose
significant challenges to the nation’s policy-makers. A combination of internal and external as well as state and non-state based threats have