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Kent Fedorowich

free-passage scheme for ex-servicemen and women which operated between 1919 and 1922 under the auspices of the Oversea Settlement Committee (OSC), established in January 1919 and itself a creation of wartime imperial co-operation. This chapter is concerned, first, to explore and explain the origins of the scheme within the ideological and political context analysed in the previous chapter by Keith Williams; and

in Emigrants and empire
Open Access (free)
Exiles in the British Isles 1940–44
Author: Nicholas Atkin

It is widely assumed that the French in the British Isles during the Second World War were fully fledged supporters of General de Gaulle, and that, across the channel at least, the French were a ‘nation of resisters’. This study reveals that most exiles were on British soil by chance rather than by design, and that many were not sure whether to stay. Overlooked by historians, who have concentrated on the ‘Free French’ of de Gaulle, these were the ‘Forgotten French’: refugees swept off the beaches of Dunkirk; servicemen held in camps after the Franco-German armistice; Vichy consular officials left to cater for their compatriots; and a sizeable colonist community based mainly in London. Drawing on little-known archival sources, this study examines the hopes and fears of those communities who were bitterly divided among themselves, some being attracted to Pétain as much as to de Gaulle.

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British POW families, 1939–45

During the Second World War, some 250,000 British servicemen were taken captive either by the Axis powers or the Japanese, as a result of which their wives and families became completely dependent on the military and civil authorities for news of their loved ones and for financial and material support. This book outlines the nature of their plight, and shows how they attempted to overcome the particular difficulties they faced during and in the immediate aftermath of hostilities. It opens up a whole new area of analysis and examines the experiences of the millions of service dependents created by total war. Taking as its starting point the provisions made by pre-Second World War British governments to meet the needs of its service dependents, the book then goes on to focus on the most disadvantaged elements of this group – the wives, children and dependents of men taken prisoner – and the changes brought about by the exigencies of total war. Further chapters reflect on how these families organised to lobby government and the strategies they adopted to circumvent apparent bureaucratic ineptitude and misinformation. The book contributes to our understanding of the ways in which welfare provision was developed during the Second World War.

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Middle-class men on the English Home Front, 1914–18
Author: Laura Ugolini

Historians of the First World War often seem to have a very clear idea of who middle-class men were and how they reacted to the outbreak of the conflict. This book explores the experiences of middle-class men on the English home front during the First World War. It first focuses on the first twelve months or so of war, a period when many middle-class men assumed that the war could hardly fail to affect them. The book then delves deeper into middle-class men's understandings of civilians' appropriate behaviour in wartime. It explores middle-class men's reasons for not conforming to dominant norms of manly conduct by enlisting, and considers individuals' experiences of 'non-enlistment'. It also focuses on middle-class men's involvement in volunteer activities on the home front. The book also focuses on middle-class men's working lives, paying particular attention to those aspects of work that were most affected by the war. It considers civilian men's responses to the new ambivalence towards profit-making, as well as to the doubts cast on the 'value' of much middle-class, whitecollar work in wartime. The book further assesses the ways in which middle-class men negotiated their roles as wartime consumers and explores the impact of war on middle-class relationships. It considers the nature of wartime links between civilians and servicemen, as well as the role of the paterfamilias within the middle-class family, before turning to focus on the relationship between civilian fathers and combatant sons.

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Barbara Hately-Broad

Introduction As the war in Europe came to an end in the late spring of 1945, the British government began to implement its plans for the return of servicemen who had fought against Germany to their homes and families. These plans were given added impetus in August when the war against Japan, which had been expected to continue for some years, ended abruptly with unconditional surrender. For many of these men there had been long separations from wives and children as a result of the war, but their role as returning heroes was assured. In contrast, the soldiers

in War and welfare
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National servicemen in the Korean War
Grace Huxford

73 v 3 v Citizen soldiers: National servicemen in the Korean War Compulsory peacetime military service –​national service –​left a mark on an entire generation of young British men. Some loved it: called up in April 1948, Ron Laver argued that ‘those years were the best of our lives’.1 Others loathed it: Patrick Wye, a Private in the Royal Army Service Corps, described it in his unpublished autobiography as ‘a great cloud on the horizon of our youth’ and Barry Smith talked of getting it ‘over with’ when he was called up on 15 March 1951.2 For some, its

in The Korean War in Britain
Kent Fedorowich

amongst them was the free passage scheme for British exservicemen and women which operated between 1919 and 1922 under the auspices of the Overseas Settlement Committee (OSC), a body established in January 1919 and itself a creation of wartime imperial co-operation. The ex-servicemen’s scheme was, in part, a response to the emotional outpouring generated by the war which led the imperial government to

in Unfit for heroes
Uncertainty and economic hardship
Barbara Hately-Broad

4 ‘The fortunes of war’ – uncertainty and economic hardship Sarah Fishman has identified that, for French prisoner of war wives during the Second World War, ‘financial hardship was the rule’.1 British prisoner of war wives often faced a similarly difficult financial situation and similar hardships. In addition to the delays to payment of allowances suffered by many service families, and the problems associated with ascertaining the true status of ‘missing’ servicemen, prisoner of war families often faced further delays to the payment of their allowances in

in War and welfare
David Thackeray

towards masculine identities after 1918. Jarvis has shown that masculine identities remained integral to politics in the 1920s and it was common for male Conservative candidates to highlight their war service and wear military dress in election literature.5 Building on this work, the following chapter demonstrates that the Conservatives’ claim to represent ex-servicemen’s interests played an important role in refashioning the party’s identity. Two hundred Conservative MPs who won seats at the 1924 election had undertaken uniformed service during the First World War, and

in Conservatism for the democratic age
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Kent Fedorowich

. Similarly, the repatriation, resettlement and rehabilitation of the empire’s servicemen and women presented British, dominion and colonial post-war administrations with a host of social, political and economic problems. There was an overwhelming official conviction that reconstruction would be a daunting challenge which had to be met with the greatest possible energy, efficiency and decisiveness in order to

in Unfit for heroes