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The British Experience
Author: Ronald Hyam

This book tries to show how sexual attitudes and activities influenced the lives of the imperial elite as well as the subjects of empire. It begins with an examination of the nature of sexuality and of its influence on individuals. The book argues that sexual dynamics crucially underpinned the whole operation of British empire and Victorian expansion. Sexual needs can be imperative, and people will go to extraordinary lengths to satisfy them. The book considers the behaviour of members of the imperial ruling elite, and examines their attitude to marriage and the relationship between their private lives and service of the empire. It looks at sexual opportunity in some different types of imperial situation, both formal and informal, in an attempt to see how sexual interaction underpinned the operative structures of British expansion. As the keeping of mistresses was not uncommon in eighteenth-century Britain, the keeping of a mistress in British India became a well-established practice. Europeans in India could flirt outrageously, but they must not fall in love or marry. To keep the women free from disease, Indian prostitutes were admitted to the cantonments, to the lal bazar after medical examination and registration, where they were given periodical checks. Official reaction against sexual opportunism began in earnest with the Purity Campaign launched in 1869, which changed the visible face of British life and attitudes. Undoubtedly there was thereafter more decorum, more chastity, less opportunity and less fun.

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Writing American sexual histories
Author: Barry Reay

The archive has assumed a new significance in the history of sex, and this book visits a series of such archives, including the Kinsey Institute’s erotic art; gay masturbatory journals in the New York Public Library; the private archive of an amateur pornographer; and one man’s lifetime photographic dossier on Baltimore hustlers. The subject topics covered are wide-ranging: the art history of homoeroticism; casual sex before hooking-up; transgender; New York queer sex; masturbation; pornography; sex in the city. The duality indicated by the book’s title reflects its themes. It is an experiment in writing an American sexual history that refuses the confines of identity sexuality studies, spanning the spectrum of queer, trans, and the allegedly ‘normal’. What unites this project is a fascination with sex at the margins, refusing the classificatory frameworks of heterosexuality and homosexuality, and demonstrating gender and sexual indecision and flexibility. And the book is also an exploration of the role of the archive in such histories. The sex discussed is located both in the margins of the archives, what has been termed the counterarchive, but also, importantly, in the pockets of recorded desire located in the most traditional and respectable repositories. The sexual histories in this book are those where pornography and sexual research are indistinguishable; where personal obsession becomes tomorrow’s archive. The market is potentially extensive: those interested in American studies, sexuality studies, contemporary history, the history of sex, psychology, anthropology, sociology, gender studies, queer studies, trans studies, pornography studies, visual studies, museum studies, and media studies.

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Race, sex and empire
Ronald Hyam

Century is the problem of the color-line. [W. E. B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk (1903), ch. 2, ‘Of the dawn of freedom’] How have race relations in the British empire been affected by sexual attitudes and practices? 1 To begin to answer this final question we need to remind ourselves of the chronology. Mid

in Empire and sexuality
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Problems and approaches
Ronald Hyam

was not prepared to make available any passages that were not already published. [Magdalene College Governing Body minute, 1952. 1 ] I propose to try to show how sexual attitudes and activities influenced the lives of the imperial elite as well as the subjects of empire. Also, and perhaps more significantly, I shall argue that

in Empire and sexuality
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Tommy Dickinson

sexual attitudes, this was also the period when the idea of homosexuality as a pathology was more universally adopted by psychiatrists in both Britain and the USA. There appeared to be a cultural shift in the immediate post-war years urging the nation to return to pre-war values. This was marked by a growing emphasis on domesticity, ‘traditional’ family life and social order, with which it was believed that homosexual men were at odds. There was never any dedicated campaign by the police to target these individuals during the 1950s; however, arrests did increase.1 This

in ‘Curing queers’
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Diane Mason

of the comedy in the Victorian Dad strip derives from the incongruity of this figure in its modern world setting’. 15 Within the context of Viz – a publication largely marketed at young adult males – Victorian Dad’s specific use of the archaic-sounding ‘onanism’ rather than one of the other more contemporary or colloquial epithets for masturbation emphasises not only his ‘difference’ but also, perhaps, the chronological distance of his sexual attitudes as they are perceived in the eyes of the, supposedly liberated, twentieth-century reader

in The secret vice
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Emma Vickers

’s campaign to lift the ban, the cornerstone of his argument rested on the estimation that some 250,000 queer men served in the British armed forces during the Second World War, an assessment which he based on findings from the 1990–91 National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles. Six per cent of the survey’s respondents declared that they had experienced sexual contact with a member of the same sex.15 Tatchell’s figure did not incorporate women, nor did it •  3  • queen and country consider those who experienced same-­sex love or intimacy but defined themselves as

in Queen and country
Nicole Vitellone

highlight is how qualitative methods also produce knowledge of heterosexuality whilst foreclosing knowledge of others. In the British context the sociologist and social historian Liz Stanley (1995) analysed the effects of the research methods deployed in the 1990 National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles. The survey was originally supported by the state. Funding was, however, withdrawn at the last minute by Margaret Thatcher, who refused the use of public funds to conduct the survey. It finally went ahead in 1990/91 with the financial support from the Wellcome

in Object matters
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Brian D. Earp and Julian Savulescu

key example. It has been argued that puritanical sexual attitudes in the United States coupled with abstinence-only sex education policies have backfired, as seen in higher teen pregnancy 28   C H A P T E R 2 rates and increased incidence of sexually transmitted infections among American religious youths. Even the moral crisis of child sexual abuse in the Catholic Church has been (controversially) linked by some scholars to norms of celibacy in the priesthood. These kinds of examples should give us pause. At a minimum, they should make us wonder whether widespread

in Love is the Drug
Patsy Stoneman

symbolism, Sylvia falls asleep while Philip reads (SL: 92), her father invokes a country custom which gives any man a right to kiss a sleeping girl. Sylvia is thus established not as a speaking subject but as a sexual object, appropriately pictured as ‘little Red Riding Hood’ (84). Similarly in Two Gentleman of Verona Silvia’s identity is constructed in male rivalry: Who is Silvia? what is she, That all our swains commend her? (Two Gentlemen of Verona, IV ii) Sylvia’s lovers, however, have very different sexual attitudes. Whereas Kinraid is spontaneous in making physical

in Elizabeth Gaskell