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The British Experience
Author: Ronald Hyam

This book tries to show how sexual attitudes and activities influenced the lives of the imperial elite as well as the subjects of empire. It begins with an examination of the nature of sexuality and of its influence on individuals. The book argues that sexual dynamics crucially underpinned the whole operation of British empire and Victorian expansion. Sexual needs can be imperative, and people will go to extraordinary lengths to satisfy them. The book considers the behaviour of members of the imperial ruling elite, and examines their attitude to marriage and the relationship between their private lives and service of the empire. It looks at sexual opportunity in some different types of imperial situation, both formal and informal, in an attempt to see how sexual interaction underpinned the operative structures of British expansion. As the keeping of mistresses was not uncommon in eighteenth-century Britain, the keeping of a mistress in British India became a well-established practice. Europeans in India could flirt outrageously, but they must not fall in love or marry. To keep the women free from disease, Indian prostitutes were admitted to the cantonments, to the lal bazar after medical examination and registration, where they were given periodical checks. Official reaction against sexual opportunism began in earnest with the Purity Campaign launched in 1869, which changed the visible face of British life and attitudes. Undoubtedly there was thereafter more decorum, more chastity, less opportunity and less fun.

Potency and degeneracy in Blake’s Visions and James Graham’s celestial bed
Tristanne Connolly

Drawing parallels between Oothoon and James Graham, a sex therapist contemporary with Blake, Tristanne Connolly reimagines the sexual dynamics in Visions: Bromion’s violence does less to blunt than to sharpen Oothoon’s own sexual desire, which she proceeds to impose upon Theotormon, whom it is possible to read as not only another victim of Bromion’s ‘thunders’ but as an emasculated Onanist perceived by Oothoon—in an echo of Graham—as sexually deviant and self-polluting for his rejection of all alloerotic stimulation. Oothoon is a hybrid of Sade’s Justine and Juliette: she is a victim of sexualised violence but also sexually aggressive in her own way. Connolly’s paper productively complicates what has too often been a simplistic understanding of Oothoon as a mere victim, a reading that founders when we attempt to square it with her Grahamian promotion of sexual union and notorious offer to procure women for Theotormon. In this way, Oothoon moves past the typical categories available to women in the Gothic—either angel or monster, either virginal victim or wicked whore.

in William Blake's Gothic imagination
Abstract only
Author: John Potvin

Richly illustrated with over 110 colour and black and white images, the book productively contests the supposedly exclusive feminine aspect of the style moderne (art deco). It explores how alternative, parallel and overlapping experiences and expressions of decorative modernism, nationalism, gender and sexuality in the heady years surrounding World War I converge in the protean figure of the deco dandy. As such, the book significantly departs from and corrects the assumptions and biases that have dominated scholarship on and popular perceptions of art deco. The book outlines how designed products and representations of and for the dandy both existed within and outwith normative expectations of gender and sexuality complicating men’s relationship to consumer culture more broadly and the moderne more specifically. Through a sustained focus on the figure of the dandy, the book offers a broader view of art deco by claiming a greater place for the male body and masculinity in this history than has been given to date. The mass appeal of the dandy in the 1920s was a way to redeploy an iconic, popular and well-known typology as a means to stimulate national industries, to engender a desire for all things made in France. Important, essential and productive moments in the history of the cultural life of Paris presented in the book are instructive of the changing role performed by consumerism, masculinity, design history and national identity.

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Roger Spalding and Christopher Parker

male violence against women, rape and marriage. 48 A good example of this approach is contained in a collection of essays, The Sexual Dynamics of History , published in 1983. In this work the collectively authored introduction rejected the class-based constraints of Marxism, and declared: ‘It is time to add the missing dynamic in history – men’s power and women’s resistance’. 49 The central argument here is that a key force in history is the conflict between the sexes, a struggle which, it is claimed, waxes and wanes as historical circumstances change and levels

in Historiography
Ronald Hyam

expansion of Europe as a whole. It is appropriate at this point to widen the analysis of its sexual dynamics by looking at the phenomenon of world wide prostitution, not only in Africa but also in the informal empire, especially in Latin America. The Chinese and Japanese forms of overseas prostitution will also need to be considered. Notes 1

in Empire and sexuality
Open Access (free)
Anne McClintock and H. Rider Haggard
Laura Chrisman

); Jenny Sharpe, Allegories of Empire: The Figure of Woman in the Colonial Text (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993). For a discussion of the sexual dynamics of Haggard’s landscape see David Bunn, ‘Embodying Africa: Woman and Romance in Colonial Fiction’, English in Africa [Grahamstown, South Africa], 15, 1 (1988), pp. 1–28. See for example the late nineteenth-century writings on evolution and degeneration of Karl Pearson, National Life from the Standpoint of Science (London: Adam and Charles Black, 1901) and James Cantlie, Degeneration Amongst Londoners

in Postcolonial contraventions
Keith Reader

received by her mother; his capacity to disturb seems to apply with particular force to the female gender, in accord with the sexual dynamics that are at work even in this, along with Un condamné the least overtly sexualised of Bresson’s films. His nights are tortured by the stomach cancer that is to claim his life, but also by the literally excruciating burden of responsibility he has taken on for the parish and every soul

in Robert Bresson
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Problems and approaches
Ronald Hyam

sexual dynamics crucially underpinned the whole operation of British empire and Victorian expansion. Without the easy range of sexual opportunities which imperial systems provided, the long-term administration and exploitation of tropical territories, in nineteenth-century conditions, might well have been impossible. This, however, was far from being an uncontested proposition in late-Victorian Britain

in Empire and sexuality
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Biography and history
Jane Martin

1883–1902 (London: Woburn Press, 2001). 28 H. Kean, Challenging the State? The socialist and feminist educational experience, 1900–1930 (Lewes: Falmer Press, 1990); Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies Unpopular Education: schooling and social democracy in England since 1944 (London: Hutchinson, 1981). 29 A. Turnbull, ‘So extremely like Parliament: the work of the women members of the London School Board, 1870–1904’, in The London Feminist History Group (eds), The Sexual Dynamics of History (London: Pluto Press, 1983), pp. 120–33; J. Martin, Women and the

in Making socialists
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Julian Mitchell’s Another Country
Jonathan Bolton

calls attention to how far Britain had yet to come in terms of tolerance and understanding. There are always going to be social codes of conduct and traditions that should be resisted, and those who stand up to them are ennobled by their sacrifice. Perhaps it is this basic conflict in Mitchell's drama, staging the schooldays of an infamous traitor as youthful rebellion, that makes Another Country a major contribution to the culture of the 1980s. It stands as a work that forcefully dramatizes how the governing class in Britain knew the sexual dynamics of the public

in The Blunt Affair