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‘Reform’ treatises and political discourse

During the sixteenth-century officials and interested parties in Ireland composed hundreds of papers on crown policy in the country and sent them to the metropolitan government in England. The information contained in these ‘reform’ treatises substantially shaped how senior ministers in England viewed an Ireland which very few of them had visited personally. Moreover these documents informed much of these ministers’ outlooks on the Irish of Ireland and the allegedly backward political and social system operating there. Perhaps most importantly, these treatises argued for the adoption of specific policies to confront various problems perceived in Ireland. Some of these in arguing for ‘reform’ through an aggressive programme of regional conquest and colonization were highly coercive, while others in proposing that ‘reform’ could be achieved through educational and social reform or the expansion of the court system had a more sanguine view of Ireland. Whatever the approach, a great many of these were in due course implemented in Ireland. In time the decision to implement these same policies played a major role in shaping the history of early modern Ireland and indeed the wider British state. As such these treatises are central to how the Tudors governed Ireland. This book offers the first extended treatment of the approximately six-hundred extant ‘reform’ treatises. In doing so it examines not just the content of this large body of papers, but how officials and other parties on the periphery of the Irish government debated policy in sixteenth-century Ireland and what impact their writings had.

Richard Suggett

6 Chapter 5 The spoken word Vagabonds and minstrels in sixteenth-century Wales Vagabonds and minstrels in sixteenth-century Wales Richard Suggett T hroughout much of late medieval and early modern Europe, from Poland and Russia in the east to Wales and Ireland in the west, itinerant minstrels entertained noble and plebeian audiences. Wandering entertainers may well have provided (as Burke has suggested) one of the unifying elements within European popular culture. A pan-European tradition of minstrelsy, crossing social and cultural boundaries, is an

in The spoken word
Old and new
Margaret Christian

11 1 Traditional scriptural interpretation and sixteenth-century allegoresis: old and new This chapter offers a brief orientation to allegorical and typological reading within the Christian tradition. In allegorical reading, or allegoresis, the writer finds a figurative or hidden message in a biblical text previously presumed to be literal. In typology, a literal person or object functioned as a precursor or anticipatory example of someone or something to come. Typology and allegorical reading were “traditional” both in the sense that they were already well

in Spenserian allegory and Elizabethan biblical exegesis
Alison Forrestal

chap 1 22/3/04 12:11 pm Page 19 1 Catholic renewal and episcopal traditions in the sixteenth century In the eyes of its Catholic contemporaries in the early 1560s, the French episcopate must have appeared to be in an enviable position. A highly influential role in the formulation of the Council of Trent’s reform programme left its mark for posterity in the shape of the final decrees and earned its members the respect of the entire Catholic church, an impression not lessened by the fact that the French delegation had only been present at the Council’s final

in Fathers, pastors and kings
Patrick Collinson

Chapter 8 . Truth, lies and fiction in sixteenth-century Protestant historiography I J ohn Foxe (and notwithstanding some glancing references to John Bale and Miles Coverdale, Foxe will serve on this occasion as shorthand for ‘sixteenthcentury historiography’) had a great deal to say on the subject of ‘truth’. In a sense he wrote about nothing else. But he was accused by his religious opponents of telling lies on an unprecedented scale. And if he did not deliberately propagate fictions, in the sense of inventing his stories, he wove his material into forms

in This England
James Lyttleton

Introduction Notwithstanding certain licence on the part of John Derricke, his images of Dublin Castle and its surrounding environs in The Image of Irelande: with a Discoverie of Woodkarne provide some novel insights on the nature of the built environment in late sixteenth-century Dublin, the nature of which is only partially understood from documentary sources and archaeological remains. The Image , published by John Day in London in 1581, was composed and illustrated by Derricke following his

in John Derricke’s The Image of Irelande: with a Discoverie of Woodkarne
Hiob Finzel’s Rationarium praxeos medicae, 1565–89
Michael Stolberg

In the sixteenth century, with growing numbers of doctores medicinae graduating from the universities, learned physicians became major representatives of a new group of urban professionals whose economic fortunes rested almost entirely on their academic training and the skills they had acquired. Their prosperity and indeed their livelihood depended on their success as practitioners – all the more so, since many of them set up their ‘business’ in places to which they had come as strangers, attracted by a salary as town physicians. Yet we know

in Accounting for health
Felicity Dunworth

allegorical personae of expositionary texts such as Piers Plowman thus developed alongside both the ‘commemorative reconstruction’ of biblical tradition in the mystery plays, and the appropriation of tropes of maternity into the discourses of affective piety. 38 Later fifteenth-century and early sixteenth-century moral drama extended the figure’s potential range of meanings in plays ‘designed to convey and comment upon a selection of doctrine and

in Mothers and meaning on the early modern English stage
Gary Waller

10 Ralegh’s ‘As You Came from the Holy Land’ and the rival virgin queens of late sixteenth-century England Gary Waller The remarkable poem traditionally attributed to Sir Walter Ralegh, ‘As You Came from the Holy Land’, deserves special attention, both for its remarkable poetical resonance and as an indication of broader cultural shifts in late Elizabethan England. There is, as with so many poems ascribed to Ralegh, some question concerning the poem’s authorship. As Steven W. May notes, Ralegh’s poetry ‘presents one of the most difficult editorial problems of

in Literary and visual Ralegh
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library