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Spectacle, legacy and public culture

The spectacle of major cultural and sporting events can preoccupy modern societies. This book is concerned with contemporary mega-events, like the Olympics and Expos. Contemporary twenty-first-century macro-social changes are different from these first-phase modernisation processes, and thus they pose different problems of interpretation in relation to the mega-events they contextualise. The contemporary changes include the digital revolution, the global ecological crisis and qualitatively new and more complex forms of globalisation. Media related aspects of contemporary mega-events, particularly sports mega-events, in the context of the wider social impacts of the digital revolution are discussed in the first part of the book. The second part talks about urban and environmental aspects of mega-events, in a period of rapid urbanisation in many parts of the world and also of ecological crisis. It outlines how mega-events can be understood as being material as well as performative spectacles which are physically 'embedded' in cities as legacies Looking into mega-events' simultaneous record of creating new public spaces in modern cities. The second part also highlights the association of contemporary mega-events with urban impacts and legacies which are both green and space-making. The final part reflects on the contemporary global shift in mega-event locations and the wider context of this in complex globalisation and the changing geopolitical relations between the West and non-Western world regions. The focus is on main non-Western region of East Asia, and specifically on its core, the People's Republic of China.

1 Mega-events and macro-social change In the Introduction we observed that in recent times, and certainly since the turn of the century, mega-events have been changing in notable ways from the way they were in the mid- and late twentieth century. This book aims to look into these important new trends, to document them in a range of cases and also to explore their contexts and motivations particularly in relation to deeper vectors of social change. In the Introduction we noted three main changes in particular. Firstly, as with so many aspects of contemporary

in Mega-events and social change
Expos, parks and cities

6 Mega-events, urban space and social change: Expos, parks and cities In this chapter we take further the exploration of the relationship between megaevents and cities in the context of long-term social change and with particular reference to the important theme of the significance of social space for modern cities. This develops some of the issues which were considered in relation to cities and Olympics in the previous chapter, this time with special reference to the other main mega-event genre of Expos. As we have seen, discussions at the interface between

in Mega-events and social change

In the last decade Irish society has visibly changed with the emergence of new immigrant communities of black and ethnic minorities. This book draws upon a number of academic disciplines, focusing on the relationship between ideological forms of racism and its consequences upon black and ethnic minorities. Media and political debates on racism in Ireland during this period have tended to depict it as a new phenomenon and even as one imported by asylum seekers. Ireland was never immune from the racist ideologies that governed relationships between the west and the rest despite a history of colonial anti-Irish racism. Citizenship reproduced inequalities between nationals on the basis of gender and race and ethnicity. The book explores how the processes of nation-building which shaped contemporary Irish society and the Irish state were accompanied by a politics of national identity within which claims of social membership of various minority groups were discounted. It examines the exclusionary and assimilationist consequences of Irish nationbuilding for Protestant, Jewish and Traveller minority communities. The book also considers anti-Semitism in Irish society from independence in 1922 until the 1950s. It examines how contemporary responses to refugees and asylum seekers have been shaped by a legacy of exclusionary state practices. Finally, the book talks about anti-Traveller racism, the politics of Traveller exclusion, the work of SPIARSI, and the efforts to contest racism and discrimination faced by minorities in Ireland as expressions of multiculturalism.

Men and women who were born, grew up and died in Ireland between 1850 and 1922 made decisions—to train, to emigrate, to stay at home, to marry, to stay single, to stay at school—based on the knowledge and resources they had at the time. This, a comprehensive social history of Ireland for the years 1850–1922, explores that knowledge and discusses those resources, for men and women at all social levels on the island as a whole. Original research, particularly on extreme poverty and public health, is supplemented by neglected published sources, including local history journals, popular autobiography and newspapers. Folklore and Irish language sources are used extensively. The book reproduces the voices of the people and the stories of individuals whenever it can, and questions much of the accepted wisdom of Irish historiography over the previous five decades.

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, the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics had a negative impact on its region within Russia’s eastern Black Sea coast and Caucasus mountains; the planning of the 2015 Expo in Milan made 2 Mega-events and social change little clear, agreed and effective provision for an urban legacy; and the planning of the 2016 Rio Olympics suffered from a range of important and preventable political, economic and ecological problems.1 Beyond the level of particular events, further problems of a serious and even existentially threatening kind have arisen in recent times at the level of a

in Mega-events and social change

2 International political economy and global social change Political economy is concerned with the historically constituted frameworks or structures within which political and economic activity takes place. It stands back from the apparent fixity of the present to ask how the existing structures came into being and how they may be changing, or how they may be induced to change. In this sense, political economy is critical theory. (Cox, 1995: 32) T he field of IPE is inextricably bound up with understandings of global social transformation. Indeed, for many

in Globalisation contested
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4883 Social Change PT bjl.qxd 1111 2 3 4 15 6 7 8 9 10 1 112 1113 4 5 6 7 8 9 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40111 13/6/07 11:07 Page 159 Conclusion When William Bulfin travelled in Tipperary in the early twentieth century, he was struck by the importance of Charles Kickham’s Knocknagow in the lives of the farmers and labourers: His works are as familiar to them as the fields amidst which they were reared. They are always quoting him . . . from its pages they take standards of conduct and criterions [sic] of life. You will hear them give the

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922

2 Children’s education and the struggle for social change Lived experiences and conceptual understandings of class, race and gender shift and change across and within geographical, cultural, political and temporal contexts. Certainly, in documenting the histories of the Socialist Sunday School (SSS) and Black Saturday School (BSS) movements, it is clear that the experiences and understandings of inequality and injustice are neither homogeneous nor stable. Not only did both of these movements emerge out of very different politics and experiences of race and

in Radical childhoods
Between old and new media

2 Mega-events and mediatisation: between old and new media The social history of mega-events such as Olympic Games and Expos over the course of the modern period reveals how much they have been altered by and have adapted to changing social contexts during the last century or more (Roche 2000). However social change ‘does not sleep’. It is evidently dynamically present in the social world of our current late modern period, and it will influence the nature and production of mega-events as we move forward in the twenty-first century. To approach an understanding

in Mega-events and social change