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3 Social cohesion It would be unfortunate if a politically correct progressivism were to deny the reality of the challenge to social solidarity posed by diversity. It would be equally unfortunate if an ahistorical and ethnocentric conservatism were to deny that addressing that challenge is both feasible and desirable. (Robert Putnam) The implicit subtexts within debates about integration are often anxieties about social cohesion. Social cohesion is a term used in the social sciences to denote the bonds or ‘glue’ that hold people together in society. The focus

in Immigration and social cohesion in the Republic of Ireland

In the last decade, Ireland's immigrant population grew to more than one in ten. Now in the midst of an economic crisis, the integration of immigrants has become a topical issue. This book offers a detailed account of how immigrants in Ireland are faring. Drawing extensively on demographic data and research on immigrant lives, immigrant participation in Irish politics and the experiences of immigrants living in deprived communities, it offers a thorough study of the immigrant experience in Ireland today. Chapters and case studies examine the effects of immigration on social cohesion, the role of social policy, the nature and extent of segregation in education, racism and discrimination in the labour market, and barriers faced by immigrants seeking Irish citizenship. The book contributes to the field of integration studies through its focus on the capabilities and abilities needed by immigrants to participate successfully in Irish society. It follows two previous books by the author for Manchester University Press: Racism and Social Change in the Republic of Ireland (2002) and Immigration and Social Change in the Republic of Ireland (2007).

Lessons from Naples

17  Enrica Morlicchio Urban poverty and social cohesion: lessons from Naples The relationship between disadvantaged populations and the urban space in which they are located has been the subject of empirical observation since the famous investigation conducted by Charles Booth in London at the turn of the twentieth century (Booth 1902). As is well known, Booth created a series of detailed maps of the streets of London, based on a cartographic method which was already in use at that time, but which had never been applied on such a broad scale. Today, thanks to

in Western capitalism in transition

conditions that would nurture and sustain individual adaptability, flexibility and risk-taking; a ‘sustainable balance between dynamism and security’.12 In this context it was unsurprising that the Fanning_01_Text.indd 17 23/11/2010 14:05 18 Immigration and social cohesion major statements since then about immigration and integration policy that are examined here have de-emphasised ethno-cultural rules of belonging. From blocking coalitions to competitive corporatism In answering the title question of his 2004 book Preventing the Future: Why Was Ireland so Poor for so

in Immigration and social cohesion in the Republic of Ireland

ineligible for state-funded training. Instead, FAS was required to treat these Fanning_01_Text.indd 127 23/11/2010 14:05 128 Immigration and social cohesion as ‘job ready’, even those with poor English; they were deemed to be in need of help in finding employment, rather than in need of employment training.2 Many of our respondents, on the other hand, described being told in job interviews that they needed training. In essence, the security governance mindset to immigration policy described in Chapter 3 required FAS to disregard the criteria that it used in assessing

in Immigration and social cohesion in the Republic of Ireland

) sought to bring together a growing body of research on the experiences of the new communities by Irish and immigrant academics. It captured a period of rapid demographic change between 1997 and 2005, with chapters on economy, law, social policy and politics and on the experiences of a number of immigrant communities. Immigration and Social Cohesion in the Republic of Ireland draws on a rapidly growing body of research on the experiences of immigrants and responses to immigrants. It examines Irish debates about integration locating them against the European Union and

in Immigration and social cohesion in the Republic of Ireland
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seem that the depths of an economic recession is hardly the optimum time to invest in integration, but there is no better one to focus on questions of social inclusion and social cohesion that affect immigrants and Irish citizens alike. Much of the information and research on which this book was built slightly predates the economic crisis of 2009. Immigration in the Irish case was driven by economic growth and, like other post-boom challenges being reckoned with in hard times, the integration of immigrants cannot be deferred without imposing considerable future

in Immigration and social cohesion in the Republic of Ireland

’.12 A further meeting of all twenty-five primary school principals in D15 was convened. This agreed to document the extent of diversity and its impact on schools in the area; one of the principals, Enda McGorman, volunteered to begin the study; the group successfully applied to the DES for his secondment; a steering Fanning_01_Text.indd 107 23/11/2010 14:05 108 Immigration and social cohesion committee was formed to work out the research design brief. The resultant 2006–7 report drew on data from all twenty-five of the primary schools in D12, the part of Dublin

in Immigration and social cohesion in the Republic of Ireland

resulting lack of detailed local and robust data that covers the whole country means that it is often difficult to adequately diagnose the problems experienced by minority ethnic groups, better target policies or services at addressing their needs, and monitor the impact on them.8 Fanning_01_Text.indd 61 23/11/2010 14:05 62 Immigration and social cohesion All European countries have immigrant populations that face dispropor­ tionate levels of social exclusion. Research has shown that migrant and indigenous ethnic minority populations in the European Union are

in Immigration and social cohesion in the Republic of Ireland

-citizens. Simply put, the default emphasis seems to be on protecting ‘nationals’ from ‘non-nationals’ rather than upon integration and social cohesion. In advance of the 2009 local government elections, Irish political parties, to some extent at least, treated immigrants as if they were citizens because there were potential electoral benefits from doing so. In essence, these eschewed ethnic nepotism by defining Irish society as the local government electorate rather than in terms of a predominantly monocultural citizenry. This temporary political openness contrasts considerably

in Immigration and social cohesion in the Republic of Ireland