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A social evolutionary perspective on diplomacy
Author: Iver B. Neumann

This book complements extant histories of diplomacy by discussing change in the form of tipping-points, understood as the culmination of long-term trends.

The first part of the book discusses social evolution on the general level of institutions. The diplomatic institution has undergone four tipping-points: between culturally similar small-scale polities, between culturally different large-scale polities, permanent bilateral diplomacy, and permanent multilateral diplomacy. The consular institution has seen three: the emergence of the consul as the judge of a trading colony, the judge as a representative of the state, and the imbrication of the consular institution in unitary foreign services. The second part challenges extant literature’s treatment of diplomacy as a textual affair and an elite concern. It lays down the groundwork for the study of visual diplomacy by establishing diplomacy’s visual genres, discussing how diplomats spread images to wider audiences and drawing up a taxonomy of three visual strategies used for this purpose: a hegemonic and Western strategy, a national strategy, and a strategy that is spiteful of Western hegemony. Two case studies discuss the evolving place of the visual in one diplomatic practice, namely accreditation, and the importance of the social imagination. One possible evolutionary effect of the latter seems to be as a lair of hibernation for the otherwise threatened idea that diplomacy is not about dialogue but about the confrontation between good and evil. The book concludes by seeing the future of diplomacy in a continued struggle between state-to-state-based diplomacy and diplomacy as networked global governance.

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Shivdeep Grewal

assumptions. Habermas’s account of social evolution is considered in the following section. This describes primitive and traditional stages of development, and the subsequent onset of juridification. Section two then looks in greater detail at the concepts of ‘system’ and ‘lifeworld’ so central to Habermas’s thought; he conceives of the EU as an intensification of juridification, rather than as a qualitative shift from law to an alternative mechanism of social evolution, such as information technology. Subsequent sections

in Habermas and European integration
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Shivdeep Grewal

social evolution is considered in the following section. This describes primitive and traditional stages of development, and the subsequent onset of juridification. Section two then looks in greater detail at the concepts of ‘system’ and ‘lifeworld’ so central to Habermas’s thought; he conceives of the EU as an intensification of juridification, rather than as a qualitative shift from law to an alternative mechanism of social evolution, such as information technology. Subsequent sections extrapolate the concept of juridification to the level of the EU. Five attributes

in Habermas and European Integration (second edition)
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Modernity, welfare state and Eutopia
Shivdeep Grewal

, suggestions of ‘juridification’, the legal consolidation of successive stages of social evolution, surfaced repeatedly in relation to both the nation-state and EU. Also common were allusions to the ‘reflective welfare state project’ ( 1994c ), the remedy proposed by Habermas in the early 1980s for the side-effects of juridification. In terms of cultural modernity, a recurrent feature of Habermas’s journalism has been the critique of neoconservatism. Building on this, other conservative tendencies, which have received less

in Habermas and European integration
The Reformation heritage
Rosemary O’Day

understanding, would reject all forms of infallibility (institutional or textual), reconcile religion and science, and unite Christians and non-Christians alike in understanding the religious impulse as a proper subject for scientific study.’22 Evolution and the Reformation If Beard saw the Reformation as a case of arrested development, other Englishmen were more positive in their attitude, seeing it as a key point in the evolution of civilized society. Social evolutionism, heavily influenced by the writings of Herbert Spencer, provided a social complement to Darwin’s theory

in The Debate on the English Reformation
Iver B. Neumann

went wrong the last time. Note, however, the contingent character of the social changes that brought on right-hand driving. By the same token, I am not prepared to privilege any one set of factors that determine diplomacy. Social evolution does not work like that. Stuff emerges, becomes problematized and leads to cooperational and conflictual behaviour without the organic laws of biology to underpin the process, which therefore remains stochastic. Young’s binary example (left-hand driving vs right-hand driving) may only help us part of the way, for it occludes the

in Diplomatic tenses
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Chandrika Kaul

aspects of the press-politics nexus, official news management, and the flavour of press reporting itself. Communications and empire Systems of communications play a vital role in shaping political, institutional and cultural structures, affecting the ‘trajectory of social evolution and the values and beliefs of societies’. 4 In general, governments

in Reporting the Raj
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Shivdeep Grewal

Up until this chapter, an ‘externalist’ view was used to discuss the lifeworld, focussing on relationships with the market and state in the course of social evolution. This is the most common way of approaching European integration in theoretical treatments, from the outside. This chapter instead focusses on the ‘internalist’ perspective of the lifeworld by examining its direct experience of market and administrative imperatives. The chapter explains how Habermas believes that a functioning democracy is one where the lifeworld can resist, and even potentially reverse, incursions by these imperatives. This chapter takes this approach by applying Habermas’s democratic theory to the EU. The siege model and the sluice gate model are employed in detail. The relationship between democracy and legitimacy that this theory suggests are relatively linear with fluctuations in one being shown to generally give rise to variations in the other. The chapter then concludes with a brief survey of the rival accounts of democracy within the EU.

in Habermas and European Integration (second edition)
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Martin O’Shaughnessy

. 2  Laurent Cantet film developed. This was an international auteur film that marked out the director’s determination to make films in a certain way, despite industry expectations. Part of Cantet’s importance undoubtedly lies in the compelling relevance and intelligence of his output, his determination to probe and bring to the surface key social evolutions and fault-lines of our time: from the changing world of work, through the challenges facing the French Republican school and the inequalities of globalised consumption, to gender oppression and emergent forms

in Laurent Cantet
Social and cultural modernity beyond the nation-state
Author: Shivdeep Grewal

German philosopher Jürgen Habermas has written extensively on the European Union. This is the only in-depth account of his project. Published now in a second edition to coincide with the celebration of his ninetieth birthday, a new preface considers Habermas’s writings on the eurozone and refugee crises, populism and Brexit, and the presidency of Emmanuel Macron.

Placing an emphasis on the conception of the EU that informs Habermas’s political prescriptions, the book is divided into two main parts. The first considers the unfolding of 'social modernity' at the level of the EU. Among the subjects covered are Habermas's concept of juridification, the latter's affinities with integration theories such as neofunctionalism, and the application of Habermas's democratic theory to the EU. The second part addresses 'cultural modernity' in Europe – 'Europessimism' is argued to be a subset of the broader cultural pessimism that assailed the project of modernity in the late twentieth century, and with renewed intensity in the years since 9/11.

Interdisciplinary in approach, this book engages with European/EU studies, critical theory, political theory, international relations, intellectual history, comparative literature, and philosophy. Concise and clearly written, it will be of interest to students, scholars and professionals with an interest in these disciplines, as well as to a broader readership concerned with the future of Europe