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Author: Bryan Fanning

In the last decade Irish society has visibly changed with the emergence of new immigrant communities of black and ethnic minorities. This book draws upon a number of academic disciplines, focusing on the relationship between ideological forms of racism and its consequences upon black and ethnic minorities. Media and political debates on racism in Ireland during this period have tended to depict it as a new phenomenon and even as one imported by asylum seekers. Ireland was never immune from the racist ideologies that governed relationships between the west and the rest despite a history of colonial anti-Irish racism. Citizenship reproduced inequalities between nationals on the basis of gender and race and ethnicity. The book explores how the processes of nation-building which shaped contemporary Irish society and the Irish state were accompanied by a politics of national identity within which claims of social membership of various minority groups were discounted. It examines the exclusionary and assimilationist consequences of Irish nationbuilding for Protestant, Jewish and Traveller minority communities. The book also considers anti-Semitism in Irish society from independence in 1922 until the 1950s. It examines how contemporary responses to refugees and asylum seekers have been shaped by a legacy of exclusionary state practices. Finally, the book talks about anti-Traveller racism, the politics of Traveller exclusion, the work of SPIARSI, and the efforts to contest racism and discrimination faced by minorities in Ireland as expressions of multiculturalism.

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Bryan Fanning

era.4 Citizenship provided the context within which rights were defined and extended as part of a process of nation-building which culminated with the nation state determining who is and who is not a citizen.5 The development of the nation state as a political entity was accompanied by the extension of rights of citizens to welfare, education and healthcare. Demarcations emerged between the rights of nationals and non-nationals. Citizenship reflected dominant ideologies of social membership on the basis of race, ethnicity, language or religion. These ideologies were

in Racism and social change in the Republic of Ireland
Will Kymlicka and Sue Donaldson

Rainer Bauböck's essay argues persuasively that our account of democratic inclusion needs to be more complex than is usually recognized. Whereas most authors attempt to identify a single fundamental principle of democratic inclusion – whether it is the all affected interests principle or the all subjected to coercion principle or some social membership/stakeholder principle – Bauböck shows that there are different types

in Democratic inclusion
How African-Americans shape their collective identity through consumption
Virág Molnár and Michèle Lamont

7 Social categorisation and group identification: how African-Americans shape their collective identity through consumption Virág Molnár and Michèle Lamont This chapter analyses how a low-status group, black Americans, use consumption to express and transform their collective identity and acquire social membership, i.e. to signify and claim that they are full and equal members in their society. More broadly, we analyse the twin processes by which this group uses consumption to affirm for themselves their full citizenship and have others recognise them as such

in Innovation by demand
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Status, identity, and role
Lynn Dobson

discussed above – assuming that if one has rights, that must mean one is thereby a citizen of whatever is granting or guaranteeing them – but pitches the locus upwards from the national to the international level of political organisation.) This claim is difficult to allow. If the fact that rights are agreed and proclaimed in international forums were decisive for citizenship, then surely everybody would be considered a citizen of the UN. We should also detach citizenship from the idea of social membership or participation. The deconstructive analysis undertaken above

in Supranational Citizenship
Social and cultural modernity beyond the nation-state
Author: Shivdeep Grewal

German philosopher Jürgen Habermas has written extensively on the European Union. This is the only in-depth account of his project. Published now in a second edition to coincide with the celebration of his ninetieth birthday, a new preface considers Habermas’s writings on the eurozone and refugee crises, populism and Brexit, and the presidency of Emmanuel Macron.

Placing an emphasis on the conception of the EU that informs Habermas’s political prescriptions, the book is divided into two main parts. The first considers the unfolding of 'social modernity' at the level of the EU. Among the subjects covered are Habermas's concept of juridification, the latter's affinities with integration theories such as neofunctionalism, and the application of Habermas's democratic theory to the EU. The second part addresses 'cultural modernity' in Europe – 'Europessimism' is argued to be a subset of the broader cultural pessimism that assailed the project of modernity in the late twentieth century, and with renewed intensity in the years since 9/11.

Interdisciplinary in approach, this book engages with European/EU studies, critical theory, political theory, international relations, intellectual history, comparative literature, and philosophy. Concise and clearly written, it will be of interest to students, scholars and professionals with an interest in these disciplines, as well as to a broader readership concerned with the future of Europe

Place, space and discourse
Editors: Christine Agius and Dean Keep

Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.

Peter J. Spiro

the extent states are required to extend citizenship to some they would otherwise reject, this further detaches citizenship from social membership. It is not always clear how stakeholder citizenship accounts for the rights-advancing dimension of citizenship. For example, Bauböck justifies birthright citizenship in part as a mechanism for reducing statelessness (p. 71). Ditto for the presumption of lifelong membership. In neither case is it

in Democratic inclusion
Orla McGarry

problematise expressions of religious and cultural difference as assertions of ‘outsider-ness’ or withdrawal from wider society. It instead posits public expressions of religious identity as assertions of social membership and symbols of active participation in contemporary Irish society. The discussion highlights the maintenance and valorisation of cultural distinctiveness as an intrinsic element of the negotiation of inclusion and belonging in wider Irish society for Muslim youth. Migrant youth in contemporary Ireland

in Immigrants as outsiders in the two Irelands
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Shivdeep Grewal

ordered interpersonal relations 6. Social memberships Socialisation 7. Interpretive accomplishment 8. Motivations for actions that conform to norms (internalisation of values) 9. Interactive capabilities formation of personal identity) Writing of the postwar period, however, Habermas diverges from social democratic analyses of Polanyi’s sort. Consumerism and the welfare state are thought to have counteracted both crises of legitimation/motivation and anomie, though at the expense of pathologies not obviously of socioeconomic

in Habermas and European integration